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#3694. Westward Expansion

Social Studies, level: Elementary
Posted Fri Mar 3 08:19:52 PST 2006 by Aldora White (singingstarr@yahoo.com).
WIMS, Ethete USA
Materials Required: Internet
Activity Time: 4 weeks

Unit Plan Assignment
Era of Expansion


Advanced Instructional Strategies
EDCI 5790


Aldora White

Content

Era of Expansion

Diagnosis of need/formulation of purpose

The planned unit is about Westward Movement. Westward Movement is an important component of history and deals with how the Western portion of the United States was expanded. It is vital to students that they understand this topic so they may gain experience and expand their knowledge in understanding the past and the linkages it has to the present. The unit’s intended target is for 8th grade students. The purpose of this unit is to have students gain a better understanding of lives of Settlers, Mountain Men, Missionaries, Native Americans, and various cultures that were affected by people moving westward.

Selection of content/rationale

The broad goals of the unit are to expand their understanding of the past and of historical perspectives, recognizing that interpretations of the past are influenced by individual experiences and more specifically students will be able to:

1. Explain why settlers and trappers were attracted to Oregon and the Far West.
2. Describe how mountain men helped explore lands in the Far West.
3. Describe the role missionaries played in the settlement of Oregon.
4. Discuss the hardships settlers faced on wagon trains to the west.
5. Discuss why American settlers in Texas came into conflict with Mexico.
6. Explain how Texas gained Independence.
7. Describe life for Native Americans in the west and how their lives were affected by the settlement of the west.
8. Explain why the Mormons moved to Utah.
9. Describe how the gold rush affected life in California.

For horizontal articulation, these goals tie into other units by students learning how specific incidences in history influenced other ideas. Also, for the students to understand the linkages between human decisions and consequences or benefits these decisions have. This unit ties into other units by continually adding to previous knowledge of lessons learned and how to identify people, events, and problems and explain their historical significance.

As for vertical articulation, these goals build on students’ previous knowledge regarding Westward Expansion and use this knowledge to prepare them to understand the impact of historical events on present and future conditions, situations, or circumstances.

Wyoming State Standards covered:

Content Standard #4. Time, Continuity, and Change
Students demonstrate an understanding of the people, events, problems, ideas, and cultures that were significant in the history of our community, state, nation and world.

Benchmark #1. Students identify people, events, problems, conflicts, and ideas and explain their historical significance.

Benchmark #3. Students analyze the impact of historical events and people on present conditions, situations, or circumstances.

Content Standard #5. People, Places, and Environments
Students demonstrate an understanding of interrelationships among people, places and environments.

Benchmark #1. Students use charts, maps, and graphs to answer questions dealing with people, places events, or environments.

Along with these goals fulfilling state and national standards, these goals also fulfill my philosophical belief of learning is a life long journey, never ending. Students continue to learn about the past and understand that history does not stop at the Westward Expansion, but continues, just as history is being made today.

Organization of content/Instructional Plan

Lesson 1 “Oregon County”

Day 1
Direct Instruction

Objective: To explain why settlers and trappers were attracted to Oregon and the Far West. Ho mountain men helped explore lands in the Far West. Describe the role missionaries played in the settlement of Oregon and discuss the hardships settlers faced on wagon trains to the West.

Activating Prior knowledge (vertical articulation):
Write the word “pioneer” on the board. Invite students to describe a “typical pioneer” or draw a “pioneer”. Discuss who pioneers are, etc.

Reading:
Ask students to read the section “Oregon Country” in The American Nation, pages 380-384 in textbook.


Intelligence:
The reading in the textbook covers the verbal/linguistic intelligence student by allowing students to demonstrate strength in speaking and listening and allows the students to be successful in the traditional classroom. The 5 step Reading Program will be used.

Assessment: Discuss the objectives to decide if students retained reading information.

Day 2
Cooperative Learning Lesson
Technology Based Lesson

Planning calendar itineraries for a journey to Oregon in the form of a calendar

Materials needed: Textbook, planning calendars, internet

Groups:
Line students up by their birthday (January-December), then group students in line by the first 3 students, next 3 students, etc.

Objective: Plan a trip west from Independence, Missouri, in the spring to Oregon Country by early October. On a calendar, they will identify landmarks and specify the approximate date they must arrive. They will also indicate approximate distances between target landmarks and obstacles that might hinder or slow their progress.

Directions: Have student’s research information regarding the Oregon Trail and identify landmarks (Independence Rock, etc) and plan calendars based on the above objective.

Assessment Rubric:
Calendar Itineraries
________________________________________
Teacher Name: Ms. White


Student Name: ________________________________________


CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Title Title tells the purpose/content of the map, is clearly distinguishable as the title (e.g. larger letters, underlined, etc), and is printed at the top of the map. Title tells the purpose/content of the map and is printed at the top of the map. Title tells the purpose/content of the map, but is not located at the top of the map. Purpose/content of the map is not clear from the title.
Map Legend/Key Legend is easy-to-find and contains a complete set of symbols, including a compass rose. Legend contains a complete set of symbols, including a compass rose. Legend contains an almost complete set of symbols, including a compass rose. Legend is absent or lacks several symbols.
Labels & Features - Neatness 90-100% of the labels/features can be read easily. 89-80% of the labels/features can be read easily. 79-70% of the labels/features can be read easily. Less than 70% of the labels/features can be read easily.
Spelling/Capitalization 95-100% of words on the map are spelled and capitalized correctly. 94-85% of the words on the map are spelled and capitalized correctly. 84-75% of the words on the map are spelled and capitalized correctly. Less than 75% of the words on the map are spelled and/or capitalized correctly.


Intelligence(s) covered:
Visual/Spatial is covered since children learn best visually. Students under this intelligence also enjoy organizing things spatially and are able to do that by organizing the calendar.
Mathematical/Logical is also covered since children display an aptitude for reasoning and problem solving and are asked to logically sequence information.
Interpersonal is also covered since children under this intelligence are people oriented and do their learning cooperatively in groups or with a partner.

Day 3

Objective:
Continue researching information regarding the trip.

Day 4

Objective:
Continue researching information regarding the trip.


Day 5

Objective:
The research should be finished and student will need to begin organizing information about landmarks, etc. Students are also asked to draw an outline map of the United States and add the symbolic road leading from east to west of the Oregon Trail starting in Independence, Missouri to add to their calendars.

Intelligence covered:
Mathematical/Logical is also covered since children display an aptitude for reasoning and problem solving and are asked to logically sequence information.
Interpersonal is also covered since children under this intelligence are people oriented and do their learning cooperatively in groups or with a partner.

Day 6
Objective: When the groups have finished their calendars, one member of each group should present the team’s itinerary, playing the role of a wagon master describing the planned journey to the pioneers.

Intelligence covered:
Verbal/Linguistic is covered here allowing students to use their speaking ability.

Assessment Rubric:
Oral Presentation Rubric : Calendar
________________________________________
Teacher Name: Ms. White


Student Name: ________________________________________


CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Collaboration with Peers Almost always listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Tries to keep people working well together. Usually listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Does not cause "waves" in the group. Often listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group but sometimes is not a good team member. Rarely listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Often is not a good team member.
Speaks Clearly Speaks clearly and distinctly all (100-95%) the time, and mispronounces no words. Speaks clearly and distinctly all (100-95%) the time, but mispronounces one word. Speaks clearly and distinctly most ( 94-85%) of the time. Mispronounces no more than one word. Often mumbles or can not be understood OR mispronounces more than one word.
Preparedness Student is completely prepared and has obviously rehearsed. Student seems pretty prepared but might have needed a couple more rehearsals. The student is somewhat prepared, but it is clear that rehearsal was lacking. Student does not seem at all prepared to present.
Listens to Other Presentations Listens intently. Does not make distracting noises or movements. Listens intently but has one distracting noise or movement. Sometimes does not appear to be listening but is not distracting. Sometimes does not appear to be listening and has distracting noises or movements.
Props Student uses several props (could include costume) that show considerable work/creativity and which make the presentation better. Student uses 1 prop that shows considerable work/creativity and which make the presentation better. Student uses 1 prop which makes the presentation better. The student uses no props OR the props chosen detract from the presentation.

Lesson 2 “The Republic of Texas”
Day 7

Conceptual Change
Collaborative
Ecologically Sustainable Culture

Objective: Have students discuss why American settlers in Texas came into conflict with Mexico. Describe how the siege of the Alamo became a rallying cry for Texans, and explain how Texas gained independence.

Activate Prior Knowledge:
Have students predict the results of a game that pits 5 players against 200. Explain that these were the odds during one battle of the Texas war for Independence. Also ask the students if they know what the word Alamo means.


Reading:
Have students read the section “The Republic of Texas” in The American Nation textbook on pages 385-389. Discuss the questions at the end of the section.

Materials: Encyclopedias

Assignment:
Have students brainstorm as to what the word Alamo means. The word Alamo means cottonwood in Spanish and the mission was built beside a grove of cottonwood trees. The students will also need to decide what the Pioneers used the cottonwood tree for. The cottonwood tree has many uses for Native American people, but specifically for the Arapaho people, the cultural mentor for Wyoming Indian Middle School will be brought into the classroom to discuss the uses of cottonwood for the Arapaho people. Cottonwood is also used in sacred ceremonies and will be told how to find the cottonwood tree and to take care of it and preserve it. The students will also be taught how to sustain the cottonwood so it will be available for future generations.

Have students develop concept maps to discuss the uses of cottonwood. They may use enclosed circles or boxes of some type. The word Alamo will be placed in the middle and the students can continue the linking words from there. Students will also learn the 30 other species of the trees and where they grow. Students will also continue working on this assignment in Science. Social studies and sciences classes will collaborate on the above assignment and use both class periods to research information. Science teacher will give students separate assignments.


Assessment:
Students are to turn in completed conceptual change models that show how the key features and ideas that are incorporated into concept maps.

Day 8

Objective: Have students continue working on conceptual change model.

Day 9

Objective: Have students continue working on conceptual change model and finish up on this day.


Assessment rubric:
Models
________________________________________
Teacher Name: Ms. White


Student Name: ________________________________________


CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Information Gathering Accurate information taken from several sources in a systematic manner. Accurate information taken from a couple of sources in a systematic manner. Accurate information taken from a couple of sources but not systematically. Information taken from only one source and/or information not accurate.
Plan Plan is neat with clear measurements and labeling for all components. Plan is neat with clear measurements and labeling for most components. Plan provides clear measurements and labeling for most components. Plan does not show measurements clearly or is otherwise inadequately labeled.

Intelligences:
Naturalist Intelligence is covered in this lesson since children in this intelligence tend to have the ability to recognize and categorize plants and/or objects in nature.
The Existentialist Intelligence is also covered in this lesson under the sacred uses of cottonwood for the Arapaho people. Most students are of Arapaho descent and will learn in the context of where humankind stands on this Earth and the links of cottonwood in ceremonial uses to better understand human existence.
The Intrapersonal Intelligence is covered in this lesson as well. Students will capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings, values, and beliefs.

Lesson 3 “Americans Rush West”
Day 10

Direct Instruction
Technology in the classroom.

Objectives: Explain why the Mormons moved to Utah. Describe the gold rush affected life in California. Explore the route of the Mormon Trail.

Have students read “Americans Rush West” in The American Nation book on pages 398-402.

Assignment: Learn these words: pan out, pay dirt, prospector, stake one’s claim, tenderfoot. Students need to research the meaning of these words and report the meanings of each. Students will use the internet and appropriate search engines to find the meanings of the words.

Intelligences:
Verbal/Linguistic is covered in this assignment so that students may use their reading and speaking abilities.

Day 11

Objective: Have students finish researching these words and turn in assignment.

Day 12

Objective:
Students are to experience the Mormon Trail and see the sites along the way in a field trip in Southern Wyoming. Students will also be required to write a poem about the experiences they had on the field trip.

Intelligences:

Bodily/kinesthetic Intelligence is used here for children to experience learning through activity.
Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence is also used here for students who learn well through patterns, rhythms, etc.

Assessment Rubric for Poem:
6+1 Trait Writing Model : Biography Poem-Characteristics & Obstacles


CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Word Choice Writer uses vivid words and phrases that linger or draw pictures in the reader's mind, and the choice and placement of the words seems accurate, natural and not forced. Writer uses vivid words and phrases that linger or draw pictures in the reader's mind, but occasionally the words are used inaccurately or seem overdone. Writer uses words that communicate clearly, but the writing lacks variety, punch or flair. Writer uses a limited vocabulary that does not communicate strongly or capture the reader's interest. Jargon or cliches may be present and detract from the meaning.
Accuracy of Facts (Content) All supportive facts are reported accurately. Almost all supportive facts are reported accurately. Most supportive facts are reported accurately. NO facts are reported OR most are inaccurately reported.
Flow & Rhythm (Sentence Fluency) All sentences sound natural and are easy-on-the-ear when read aloud. Each sentence is clear and has an obvious emphasis. Almost all sentences sound natural and are easy-on-the-ear when read aloud, but 1 or 2 are stiff and awkward or difficult to understand. Most sentences sound natural and are easy-on-the-ear when read aloud, but several are stiff and awkward or are difficult to understand. The sentences are difficult to read aloud because they sound awkward, are distractingly repetitive, or difficult to understand.
Focus on Topic (Content) There is one clear, well-focused topic. Main idea stands out and is supported by detailed information. Main idea is clear but the supporting information is general. Main idea is somewhat clear but there is a need for more supporting information. The main idea is not clear. There is a seemingly random collection of information.
Support for Topic (Content) Relevant, telling, quality details give the reader important information that goes beyond the obvious or predictable. Supporting details and information are relevant, but one key issue or portion of the storyline is unsupported. Supporting details and information are relevant, but several key issues or portions of the storyline are unsupported. Supporting details and information are typically unclear or not related to the topic.
Adding Personality (Voice) The writer seems to be writing from knowledge or experience. The author has taken the ideas and made them "his own." The writer seems to be drawing on knowledge or experience, but there is some lack of ownership of the topic. The writer relates some of his own knowledge or experience, but it adds nothing to the discussion of the topic. The writer has not tried to transform the information in a personal way. The ideas and the way they are expressed seem to belong to someone else.
Grammar & Spelling (Conventions) Writer makes no errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content. Writer makes 1-2 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content. Writer makes 3-4 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content. Writer makes more than 4 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.
Conclusion (Organization) The conclusion is strong and leaves the reader with a feeling that they understand what the writer is "getting at." The conclusion is recognizable and ties up almost all the loose ends. The conclusion is recognizable, but does not tie up several loose ends. There is no clear conclusion, the paper just ends.

Day 13

Assignment:
Students are to write a poem using the rubric about the characteristics and obstacles of the Mormon Trail. In the poem, they will be graded on word choice, facts, etc. Please see the rubric.


Day 14
Assignment:
Students are to write a poem using the rubric about the characteristics and obstacles of the Mormon Trail. In the poem, they will be graded on word choice, facts, etc. Please see the rubric. Students will finish on this day.

Day 15, 16, 17

Final Assessment

Students are required to create a trivia game regarding Westward Movement. The information needs to be accurate as well as fun!

Making A Game : Westward Expansion
________________________________________
Teacher Name: Ms. White


Student Name: ________________________________________


CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Creativity The student put a lot of thought into making the game interesting and fun to play as shown by creative questions, game pieces and/or game board. The student put some thought into making the game interesting and fun to play by using textures, fancy writing, and/or interesting characters. The student tried to make the game interesting and fun, but some of the things made it harder to understand/enjoy the game. Little thought was put into making the game interesting or fun.
Rules Rules were written clearly enough that all could easily participate. Rules were written, but one part of the game needed slightly more explanation. Rules were written, but people had some difficulty figuring out the game. The rules were not written.
Accuracy of Content All information cards made for the game are correct. All but one of the information cards made for the game are correct. All but two of the information cards made for the game are correct. Several information cards made for the game are not accurate.
Knowledge Gained Student could easily and correctly state several facts about the topic used for the game without looking at the game. Student could easily and correctly state 1-2 facts about the topic used for the game without looking at the game. Student could easily and correctly state 1-2 facts about the topic used for the game without looking at the game. Student could NOT correctly state facts about the topic used for the game without looking at the game.


Intelligences:
Visual/Spatial Intelligence is covered here so that students can see what they have learned.
Bodily/Kinesthetic is also covered here so that students are learning through hands-on activity.