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Grade: Senior
Subject: Science

#3036. Species Interactions

Science, level: Senior
Posted Thu Jan 22 13:42:42 PST 2004 by Brianne Sandy (browneyedgirl_428@hotmail.com).
University of Pittsburgh, Johnstown
Materials Required: Encyclopedias, magazines
Activity Time: 50 minutes
Concepts Taught: Jigsaw cooperative learning activity with species interactions

Lesson Plan

Teacher: B. Sandy Date: 1/22/04
Class: Biology Grade Level: 10th
Unit: Ecosystems Lesson: Species Interactions
PA Academic Standards: 3.3.10 A (Explain the structural and functional similarities and differences found among living things.)

Goal of this lesson
-To understand relationships and interactions between species.
-To understand the difference between a fundamental niche and a realized niche.
-To learn about the various species interactions from their classmates through the jigsaw activity.
-To understand the importance of putting definitions into their own words.
-To understand the importance of examples in biology classes.
-To realize what the various roles are that animals/organisms play in ecosystems.
-To understand that they also have roles in the world.
-To understand the importance of listening and learning from others.
-To understand the relationships of these interactions to them and life around them.

Materials
-Worksheets/handouts for the stations.
-Vocabulary list for the day.
-List of home groups.
-List of station groups.
-Directions worksheet.
-Quiz.
-Handout, directions, and quiz for the special needs student.

Clerical/Administrative Tasks
-Make the separate worksheets for each station.
-Make the vocabulary sheets for each student.
-Make a list of who will be in each home group, and also who will be in each station.
-Make a worksheet that gives the directions for the jigsaw activity.
-Make a quiz on the species interactions.
-Make extra handouts, directions, and quiz for the special needs student.

Instructional Objectives
-After class discussion, TSWBAT understand the various roles that animals/organisms play in the environment along with what roles they play in the world.
-After class discussion, TSWBAT differentiate between fundamental and realized niches.
-After class discussion, TSWBAT define each type of species interactions in their own words.
-After class discussion, TSWBAT describe a detailed example of each of the various species interactions.
-During the jigsaw activity, TSWBAT determine a way of learning the information so they will be able to teach their home group members.
-During the jigsaw activity, TSWBAT listen to one another and communicate the information through explanations of the concepts.
-After the jigsaw activity, TSWBAT define and give an example of all of the various forms of species interaction.

Introduction
-Ask the students to think about what roles they play in society.
-Talk about how they are students, 10th graders, sons or daughters, brothers or sisters, etc. Have them brainstorm on this concept and have class discussion on this.
-Ask what they have to do and how they have to act in those specific roles.

Developmental Activities

Part One: (7 minutes)

-Ask the class to think back to last week when we were talking about the various forms of producers and consumers that are in the world (ex: herbivores, carnivores, etc.) and how they all fit into the food webs.
-Remind them that the levels of the food webs are called trophic levels, and then introduce another term that can be used to mean the same thing as trophic levels, which is called Feeding levels.
-Go on to talk about how each species has a functional role in an ecosystem, which is called a niche.
-Tell them that there are two main types of niches:
-The first is called a Fundamental Niche. This is a niche that might prevail when there is no competition or other factors that could constrain the species/organisms acquirement and use of resources.
-The second type is called a Realized Niche which can shift in large and small ways over time as individuals of the species respond to a variety of changes.
-Transition:
-Since we have been talking about the various roles that species play in the environment/ecosystems, we need to look at how the different species interact with one another and what roles they play in these interactions.

Part Two: (25 minutes)

-Now, tell the class that they are going to participate in the jigsaw cooperative learning activity dealing with species interactions.
-Split them into 5 pre-designed groups.
-After they are in their groups, tell them that they are in their Home groups.
-Now give them the directions for the jigsaw activity so they can follow along as you explain to them what they will be doing.
-For this activity they are each going to be selected to go to one of five stations. At these stations, they will be given the proper materials to read in order to understand two different types of species interactions (each group will have two to learn).
-While at these stations, they are instructed to read over the definitions and examples for both of the interactions that have been given to them.
-After reading the definitions and examples, they should talk quietly with their station group to decide on how to put these definitions into their own words so that they will be able to explain them to their Home groups. They will also be told to take notes on the items they go over in their groups because they will not be allowed to take the papers back to their Home groups.
-Let them know that I will be around to answer any questions they may have.
-They will also be instructed to brainstorm and come up with at least one other example for each of their two interactions in order to better explain the terms to their groups.
-After about ten minutes (or when everyone has a good grasp on the information at their stations), I will instruct them to pile up the materials I had given to them so that I can collect them.
-They will then be sent back to their Home groups where they will have around 15 minutes (longer if necessary) to take turns explaining the two terms each of them had learned to the other group members.
-They will be encouraged to put ideas into their own words to better explain these concepts.
-They will also be told to take notes on what each of the Home group members has to say about the interactions they learned about because they will be responsible for knowing the information (so everyone should try to do a good job explaining and listening).
-Students will be encouraged to add any extra feelings or thoughts to other’s explanations in order to better clarify topics and help each other understand more thoroughly.
-I will make sure that all of the Home group members have a good grasp on the information before continuing with the lesson, but not waiting too long because there is still assessment on what they have learned.
-The students will then be instructed to put all of their notes away to get ready for a short quiz on the material.

Assessment/Evaluation

-(12 minutes)
-Give a short quiz where the students will have to explain in their own words and also give an example of 4 species interactions in which they learned from other group members (not ones that they learned at their stations).
-The quiz will have a list of all the names of the species interactions given at the top of the sheet for them to choose from.
-The quiz will be worth 20 points.
-After the quiz is over, they will be instructed to turn their papers over.
-Once everyone has finished, they will turn in their papers.
-If they feel that they did poorly, they will be given a chance to redeem themselves by telling me about 2 species interactions and examples of them in depth (ones that they did not learn at their stations) to regain 2 points to add on to their grade. I will only add these points on if the student did poorly on the quiz.

Conclusion
-I will ask if there are any questions on any of the species interactions.
-I will ask if they understand the various roles species play in the world and why each role is important and also why the different roles come together and species interact.
-I will ask if they understand their roles in life.
-I will randomly ask the students questions on what they have learned to test their knowledge.

Accommodations/Adaptations for Students with Special Needs

-For a special needs student with a vision problem:

-I will print out the handouts, directions, and quiz in larger font with larger spaces in between and in a darker color.
-I will make sure they are seated close to the front of the classroom.
-I will write important ideas/concepts/terms on the board.
-I will make sure to check up on them to see if they are understanding any worksheets/directions I have given to them.

Reflective Notes

-To be given after the lesson:

-“How well was I prepared?”
-“How well did the students like the lesson?”
-“How well did I like the lesson?”
-“Will I use this lesson again?”
-“Does this lesson need revision before I use it again?”


Group Stations Handouts

Group One:

1) Commensalism—ecological interaction in which one species benefits and the other is neither armed nor helped.
a) Example:
i) Birds use tree branches for roosting sites.
(1) The trees get nothing but are not harmed.
2) Mutualism—symbiotic association in which both partners benefit.
a) Example:
i) Clownfish and sea anemone.
(1) The tentacles around the mouth of the sea anemone will be used to eat many fish, but not the clownfish.
(2) The clownfish swim out and capture food, then return to the tentacles (which protect them from predators) and the sea anemone will eat food scraps that fall from the mouth of the fish.

Group Two:

1) Interspecific Competition—ecological interaction in which individuals that belong to the same population compete for a share of resources in their habitat.
a) Disadvantages flow both ways.
2) Predation—an ecological interaction in which one organism feeds on another.
a) An interaction that directly benefits the predator, and directly hurts the prey.
b) Depends on factors:
i) Carrying Capacity:
(1) Rates of reproduction for predator and prey populations.
(2) Responses of the population of predators to increased prey density.
ii) Examples:
(1) Spiders that prey upon insects.
(2) Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare.

Group Three:

1) Parasitism—type of predation in which the predator feeds on but usually does not kill a larger organism.
a) An interaction that directly benefits the parasite, and directly hurts the host.
b) Example:
i) Ticks that suck the blood of deer.
2) Symbiosis—ecological interaction in which two or more species live together in a close, long-term association.
a) Positive benefits flow both ways.

Group Four:

1) Intraspecific competition—ecological interaction in which individuals that belong to the same population or species compete for a share of resources in their habitat.
a) Can be fierce.
i) More intense than Interspecific competition.
ii) Why?
(1) Because the requirements of two species might be similar, but they never can be as close as they are for individuals of the same species.
b) Sometimes individuals have equal access to a required resource, but some are better than others at exploiting it.
c) Competition tends to reduce the supply of a shared, limited resource.
d) In some cases, individuals control access to a resource and partially or completely prevent others from using it regardless of its scarcity or abundance.
2) Competitive Exclusion—theory that two or more species that require identical resources cannot coexist indefinitely.
a) Testing with paramecium.

Group Five:

1) Resource Partitioning—of two or more species that compete for the same resource, a sharing of the resource in different ways or at different times, which allows them to coexist.
a) The subdividing of some category of similar resources that lets competing species coexist.
b) Differences in adaptations allow for this to happen.
2) Obligatory—some forms of mutualism.
a) The individuals of one species cannot grow and reproduce in the absence of intimate dependency with individuals of another species during the life cycle.
b) Example:
i) The interaction between yucca plants and yucca moths.
ii) Each plant of this genus (Yucca) can be pollinated only by one species of the yucca moth genus.



Vocabulary List

1) Feeding Levels—the trophic levels.

2) Niche—functional role of a species in an ecosystem.
a) Sum total of all activities and relationships in which individuals of a species engage as they secure and use the resources required to survive and reproduce.

b) Two Types:
i) Fundamental Niche—one that might prevail in the absence of competition and other factors that could constrain its acquirement and use of resources.
ii) Realized Niche—shifts in large and small ways over time, as individuals of the species respond to a mosaic of changes.

3) Species Interactions

a) Commensalism—ecological interaction in which one species benefits and the other is neither armed nor helped.

b) Mutualism—symbiotic association in which both partners benefit.

c) Interspecific Competition—ecological interaction in which individuals that belong to the same population compete for a share of resources in their habitat.

d) Predation—an ecological interaction in which one organism feeds on another.

e) Parasitism—type of predation in which the predator feeds on but usually does not kill a larger organism.

f) Symbiosis—ecological interaction in which two or more species live together in a close, long-term association.

g) Intraspecific Competition—ecological interaction in which individuals that belong to the same population or species compete for a share of resources in their habitat.

h) Competitive Exclusion—theory that two or more species that require identical resources cannot coexist indefinitely.

i) Resource Partitioning—of two or more species that compete for the same resource, a sharing of the resource in different ways or at different times, which allows them to coexist.

j) Obligatory—some forms of mutualism.
i) The individuals of one species cannot grow and reproduce in the absence of intimate dependency with individuals of another species during the life cycle.

Directions to Jigsaw Activity

-You are all going to participate in the jigsaw cooperative learning activity dealing with species interactions.

-You will be split into 5 pre-designed groups. These groups will be considered your Home groups.

-For this activity you are each going to be selected to go to one of five stations. At these stations, you will be given the proper materials to read in order to understand two different types of species interactions (each group will have two to learn).

-While at these stations, you will be instructed to read over the definitions and examples for both of the interactions that have been given to you.

-After reading the definitions and examples, you should talk quietly with your station group to decide on how to put these definitions into your own words so that you will be able to explain them to your Home groups. You should also take notes on the items you go over in your groups because you will not be allowed to take the papers back to your Home groups.

-I will be around to answer any questions you may have.

-You should also brainstorm and come up with at least one other example for each of their two interactions in order to better explain the terms to your groups.

-After about ten minutes (or when everyone has a good grasp on the information at your stations), I will instruct you to pile up the materials I have given to you so that I can collect them.

-You will then be sent back to your Home groups where you will have around 15 minutes (longer if necessary) to take turns explaining the two terms each of you had learned to the other group members.

-You are encouraged to put ideas into your own words to better explain these concepts.

-You should also take notes on what each of the Home group members has to say about the interactions they learned about because you will be responsible for knowing the information (so everyone should try to do a good job explaining and listening).

-You will be encouraged to add any extra feelings or thoughts to other’s explanations in order to better clarify topics and help each other understand more thoroughly.

-After all of the Home group members have a good grasp on the information, you will then be instructed to put all of your notes away to get ready for a short quiz on the material.

Quiz (20 pts.)

Symbiosis Interspecific Competition Obligatory

Mutualism Intraspecific Competition Parasitism

Predation Competitive Exclusion Commensalism

Resource Partitioning

I. Explain in your own words and also give an example of 4 species interactions in which you learned from other group members (not ones that you learned at your stations).
--Use the list of terms at the top of the page and pick 4 of these terms to describe.


1. ____________________________________________________________________
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____________________________________________________________________
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____________________________________________________________________

2. ____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

3. ____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

4. ____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________


Technology Integration

1. If I had one computer that was a teacher station connected to the Web with large screen projection capability, I would be able to show various power-point slides to the class of various information for their vocabulary words and also of pictures and examples that I had found on the internet. I would also be able to search online during class to look up anything that the class had questions on for which we were discussing. Another idea would be that I could type out various ideas that we brainstorm during class and project them onto the screen instead of using a regular chalkboard. I would also be able to give notes, directions to the activity, and any other valuable information on the screen instead of in handouts.
2. If I had a cluster of six computers in my classroom with each computer connected to the web and a computer-to-student ratio of 1:4, I would have the students broken up into groups in which they would work together to research the ideas that we are discussing in the class. Instead of having the groups look through encyclopedias, handouts, and magazines at their stations, I would have them all do their research online to come up with a clear idea of the items I have given them. They could then all work together to come up with conclusions on their topics which they could type out and print to take back to their home groups.
3. If I had a lab reserved for my class with one computer per student, each connected to the Web, I would still split them up into their home groups, but I would change the part where I would normally have them split off into their separate stations. I would still have the list of their station groups that they would split up into, but to make it different, I would have them work on their own researching their station’s topics, and then I would allow them to collaborate to come up with a more complete idea on the items they are learning about. They will then be allowed to type up their summaries on their topics and print them out to take back to discuss with their home groups.