Correctional System in United States of America
The student will:
A. Examine crime and punishment prior to the Middle Ages. (Criminal Justice I Standard 8.1)
B. Examine crime and punishment through the 1800's. (Criminal Justice I Standard 8.2)
C. Investigate the development of the penal systems in the United States. (Criminal Justice I Standard 8.3)
Introduction – Context
The objective of this unit is to provide the students with exposure to and information on correctional systems and practices throughout history. The students will further be exposed to current correctional practices in use in the United States of America. The students will be led into discussions, analysis and illustrations of penal systems. (UG-A, B, C)
The student will:
A. Debate prison practices in the past against those in the present system.
(UG-A, B, C)
B. Argue the purpose of the prison system through the 1800s in contrast to today's prisons. (UG-B, C)
C. Outline the development of the penal system in the United States. (UG-C)
The Instructor will:
A. Provide information to students on correctional practices and the roles of prisons throughout history. (UG-A, B, C)
B. Provide technology opportunities such PowerPoint, WebQuest and student led internet research. (UG-A, B, C)
C. Provide illustrations, structured group activities and roundtable discussions on differing penal systems. (UG-A, B, C)
Materials and Media:
A. Multimedia presentations such as videos and videostreaming for viewing examples of prisons and correctional facilities.
B. PowerPoint for presenting visual examples of breakdown and graphic organizers of penal systems.
C. Internet for research and WebQuest of prison population and roles of prisons.
D. Textbooks (classroom set) to enhance lecture and corroborate information provide in instructor led activities.
A. Essential Questions discussion (UG-A, B, C)
B. Group Research Project (UG-A, B, C)
C. Weekly Small Group Activities (UG-A, B, C)
D. Teacher Observation of discussion and group participation (UG-A, B, C)
E. Weekly quizzes (UG-A, B, C)
F. 6 week test (UG-A, B, C)
Goal – Students will demonstrate their knowledge of the correctional system in the United States. (Criminal Justice 1-Standard 8.0)
Investigate the development of the penal system in the United States (Criminal Justice I – 8.3)
A. Given the definitions of key terms from instructor lecture, the students will be able to identify match terms and definitions at 80% accuracy.
Will you recall how society dealt with crime prior to the introduction of prisons? Post Revolutionary War America began to see that corporal or capital punishment could not deal with all criminal acts. As we explored, society’s views on what is considered “cruel and unusual” can change daily, dependent on the Day’s top news story. While some form of public humiliation such as the pillory may not be considered cruel and unusual in Early America, public mutilation was loosing its public support. Americans began to see that rising crime in the new republic had to be dealt with using new methods.
(Begin PowerPoint) Imprisonment in England began with the Hulks. Anyone remember what those were? (Wait for response, redirect if necessary.) How was England using Australia? (Wait for response, redirect if necessary.) The Pennsylvania Quakers took the idea of imprisonment and put an American twist on it. What do you think that twist might be? (Wait for response.) The Penitentiary is our twist. The word Penitentiary comes from the word penitence when means to admit wrong doing and vow to never repeat that wrong.
A. By linking to previous discussions of how society has punished criminals, the students will continue their journey into the evolution of the American correctional system.
B. Using lecture and PowerPoints, the students will be exposed to the early history of American prisons, the development of the American correctional system and a visual representation of the Tennessee prisons through the modern era.
4. Strategies for Higher Order Learning:
A. Seated lecture time
B. Instructor led discussion
C. Visuals provided by PowerPoint and http://state.tn.us/correction/pdf/historicaljourney-rev02-20-07.pdf
D. Textbook (classroom set) page 542
5. Practice and/or Review:
Review for this lesson will come in future conversations regarding the evolution of prisons into the modern era.
6. Monitor and Adjust:
By listening to student feedback and by observation, adjustments will be made to focus and redirect questions and unclear information. Modifications will be provided based on IEP requirements.
In the likelihood that students do not understand the evolution of prisons in America, redirection and review will be provided with positive feedback.
8. Materials/Media and their use:
A. Textbook (classroom set) for historical timeline of prisons, page 542.
B. PowerPoint presentation
9. Alternative / Supplemental Activities:
A. Printed student copy of historical timeline, if needed for notes.
B. Additional time to research State of Tennessee Department of Corrections website.
A. Teacher observation of student feedback and interest.
B. Weekly Quiz over content.
A. Desks are arranged in row seating
B. Textbooks provided at each desk
C PowerPoint and presentation system
D. Access to student computers if necessary
As we can see, the eras we discussed have leant some part to modern prisons and the community therein. What part of the Pennsylvania System is being used today? Tell me about the Auburn System. How do you see it being used today? Reformatories led to the development of the parole which we will cover later in the six weeks. We will continue tomorrow on our journey to modern prisons.