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#1398. American Quilts

other, level: Elementary
Posted Sat Nov 13 09:48:03 PST 1999 by Jennifer Henderson (jennhenderson@juno.com).
Ashton Elementary/University of Rhode Island, Cumberland, RI
Materials Required: Please refer to each lesson plan!
Activity Time: 2-3 weeks
Concepts Taught: Integrated Thematic Unit


American Quilts

Integrated Unit for Grade 3

Submitted by: Jennifer Henderson November 13, 1999
jennhenderson@juno.com

American Quilts Introductory Lesson
Reader/Text Connection Lesson
A Quilt Story, by Tony Johnson


Objectives Students will demonstrate the ability to make an emotional connection to A Quilt Story. (LA Standard 2*)

Students will describe a "memento" or special item that makes them feel warm and cozy. (LA Standard 4*)

Students will recognize that mementos may take many forms.

Students will create/illustrate their own ideal memento to pass on to future generations. (LA Standard 3*)

*For detail regarding these standards, please refer to the end of this lesson plan.

Instructional Materials & Resources The Quilt Story, by Tony Johnson
Mementos from home
Quilt Block Paper
Crayons and Pencils
Drawing & Writing Paper

Instructional Activities & Tasks Activating/Reviewing Prior Knowledge:
1. The day before reading The Quilt Story, send a note home to parents asking them to help their child choose a special item that makes the student feel "warm, cozy, and special" and reminds them of home/family.
2. Talk with the students about the kinds of things that they might bring (stuffed animals, blankets, clothing, etc.), and what types of items are not appropriate (a pet dog or fish. . .perhaps something that reminds them of the dog or fish would be better).
3. Bring children to the circle for sharing and reading time. Begin with your own item, explaining what it is, how you got it, and how it makes you feel (especially emphasize your feelings).
4. Allow each child to share their special item and ask them how it makes them feel to hold it (touch, smell, see it, etc.).

CONTENT:
1. Take a "picture walk" of The Quilt Story, by Tony Johnson. Show children the cover, read them the title, and slowly turn the pages. Explain how this is a story about Abigail and her quilt.
2. READ THE BOOK ONCE THROUGH FOR SHEER PLEASURE!
3. During a second reading of the text, stop at the page where Abigail has
just moved into the new, fresh, white log cabin. . .just up until the part where Abigail's mother wraps her in the quilt and "rocks her the way mothers do" to make her feel safe and comfy.
4. Give each student a paper with a quilt "outline" on it. . .have them color in a quilt with pictures and colors that would make them feel happy and warm and safe.
5. Ask several students to share their quilts, probing them to explain why they chose certain colors and shapes and pictures, and ask the children what it makes them feel.
6. Keep the children's mementos out and around the room for "inspiration.") Post the personal quilt pictures on a bulletin board in the front of the room.

CLOSURE/RECAP:
1. After a few days, re-read The Quilt Story. Remind students of the items that they brought in to share. Have the students visit the part in the text where Abigail is no longer in the story, and it becomes the little girl's quilt. Ask students how they think the little girl ended up with the quilt.
2. Have students draw a picture of something they would like to pass along to their own children (when they have them). Ask them to either write a sentence about what it would be, and why they would want to share it with their kids, or have them share in large group discussion. (This has the potential to be developed into a class book.)

Assessment Activities Students will be observed by the teacher to assess their ability to communicate orally, express their ideas clearly, and listen when others are speaking.

Students' understanding of mementos and their importance will be evaluated through the final drawing and writing piece.

Learner Factors To be completed Fall 1999. Individual differences for students with disabilities, IEPs, and multi-modal learners will be accommodated.

Environment Factors For this lesson, a large group sharing area is required. If this does not exist in the classroom, desks would have to be moved so that students could sit in a circle for sharing.
Additionally, space would have to be made to display the students' quilt blocks and their special mementos from home.
Reflection To be completed Fall 1999.

This lesson on mementos and The Quilt Story directly relates to The Rhode Island Language Arts Standards 2, 3, and 4.

Standard 2: RESPONSE TO TEXT
All students will demonstrate the ability to understand and respond to
a wide variety of text.

Standard 3: CREATION AND PRESENTATION OF TEXT
All students will compose clear text in a variety of forms for many
purposes.

Standard 4: STUDENT VOICE
All students will demonstrate the power and effectiveness of voice
through language arts.



"American Quilts"
Mathematics Lesson Plan--3rd Grade
Quilts, Geometric Shapes, Patterns & Measurment


Objectives Students will use measurement units (inches, feet, etc.) to produce quilt patterns. (New Standard M2g*)

Students will identify various geometric shapes, providing names and definitions. (New Standards M2d, M6e*)

Students will practice concepts of geometric patterns, such as symmetry. (New Standard M2f*)

*For details regarding standards, please refer to the end of the lesson.
Instructional Materials & Resources Construction paper, colored, cut into various shapes (circles, squares, triangles, rectangles).

White paper

Rulers

Pencils and Crayons

Glue

Scissors

Templates of Shapes for Whiteboard

Instructional Activities & Tasks Draw several shapes up on the whiteboard in the front of the room.


Ask students to identify the shapes. How do they know? What clues are in the shapes? (Triangle, Square, Rectangle, Circle)

Review concepts of measurement. A ruler will be on each student's desk. Show me what an inch is? How much is six inches? How long is one foot? Can anyone show me one-half inch?

Pass out the construction paper shapes.
Show students examples on the whiteboard. Use the first shape (the red triangle) and measure it togtehter.

Practice measuring specific shapes (the red triangle, the purple square, etc.) Record your answers on the worksheet (Complete one together as a whole class, then have students complete the measurement worksheet independently).

Swap papers, and have neighbors compare answers.

DAY TWO:
QUILT ACTIVITY:
Show students several quilt block patterns and pictures of quilts (or real quilts, if possible). Ask them if they see any patterns. . .repeated shapes. . .explain the term symmetry (the same shapes in reversed order. . .like looking in a mirror. . .same on both sides).

Explain that students are going to take the construction paper shapes and create their own quilt blocks. They can use patterns, like the examples, or make them totally random designs.

Once they have their desired quilt block, they must show it to the teacher and explain their pattern. . .what kind of shapes they used, and what kind of pattern (symmetry, repetition, etc.) they used. They may then glue their pattern down to a piece of white paper.

Students will then complete a worksheet, identifying the type and number of different geometric shapes used. Additionally, students will be required to measure the different shapes used in their quilt block.

Closure:
Create a quilt museum bulletin board, in which each student presents their block, patterns used, shapes used, and measurements to the entire class. They are then allowed to "hang" their artwork and worksheet on the bulletin board.

Assessment Activities Worksheet containing student's original quilt pattern (with activities on identifying numbers of different shapes contained in the pattern; and measuring different shapes; identifying any repeated/reversed patterns).

Students should be able to measure shapes to the nearest inch. Students should identify by color and count the different geometric shapes used with 90% accuracy.

Learner Factors Independent work will be the focus of this lesson. Whole group instruction will be provided to introduce material.

The lesson also provides a mixture of hands-on, tactile experiences with measurement, patterns, and geometric shapes to encourage the use of multiple intelligences.

Any students with IEPs will be accommodated through the use of partner-work, additional time, or reduced workload as specified by their IEP. Special Education and Resource Teachers will be consulted upon my arrival at the school to discuss students' needs.

Environment Factors Class setup will remain the same, as students are required to work at their individual desks.

Procedures for using scissors and glue will be revisited, if necessary.

Moist paper towels should be made available for cleanup of the glue.

Reflection To be completed after the teaching of the lesson.

This lesson on Geometric Quilts directly relates to New Standards Math Standards M2d, M2f, M2g, and M6e.


M2: Geometry and Measurement Concepts
" The student demonstrates understanding of a mathematical concept by using it to solve problems, representing it in multiple ways (through numbers, graphs, symbols, diagrams, or words, as appropriate), and explaining it to someone else. All three ways of demonstrating understanding--use, represent, and explain--are required to meet this standard:

M2d--Uses many types of figures (angles, triangles, squares,
rectangles, rhombi, parallelograms, quadrilaterals, polygons, prisms,
pyramids, cubes, circles, and spheres) and identifies the figures by
their properties, e.g., symmetry, number of faces, two- or three-
dimensionality, and no right angles.

M2f--Extends and creates geometric patterns using concrete and
pictorial models.

M2g--Uses basic ways of estimating and measuring the size of figures
and objects in the real world, including length, width, perimeter, and
area.


"The student demonstrates fluency with basic and important skills by using these skills accurately and automatically, and demonstrates practical competence and persistence with other skills by using them effectively to accomplish a task, perhaps referring to notes, books, or other students, perhaps working to reconstruct a method; that is, the student:

M6e--Refers to geometric shapes and terms correctly with concrete objects or drawings, including triangle, square, rectangle, side, edge, face, cube, point, line, perimeter, area, and circle; and refers with assistance to rhombus, parallelogram, quadrilateral, polygon, polyhedron, angle, vertex, volume, diameter, circumference, sphere, prism, and pyramid.


American Quilts
Science Lesson Plan--3rd Grade
Natural Dyes Used in Making Quilt Fabric

Objectives Students will identify materials that can be used as natural dyes for fabric. (New Standard S3a*)

Students will practice scientific procedures, making predictions, and recording results with words and illustrations. (New Standard S7b*)

Students will exhibit cooperative learning habits and practices. (New Standard S5f*)

Students will practice safety measures using heat sources and materials that stain. (New Standard S8a*)

Students will identify different variables in dying fabric, and the results of changing those variables. (New Standard S8a*)

*For details regarding these standards, please refer to the end of this lesson plan.
Instructional Materials & Resources Plants, Flowers and Berries
Knife, Spoons, Teaspoons
Blenders
Old shirts, aprons, smocks (from Goodwill)
Rubber Gloves
Water
Non-metal containers (e.g.,Tupperware)
Pots (Glass or Enamel)
Heat Source (e.g. stove or hotpot)
Strainer
White Muslin/Cotton
Rubber Gloves
Laundry Detergent
Adult Helpers

Instructional Activities & Tasks Recalling Prior Knowledge:
1. Review the different fabrics and patterns discussed during the American Quilt Unit (e.g. Amish solids, African prints).
2. Examine the scraps of fabric, quilts, and our own quilt block creations around the room.
3. Ask students how they think the color "got into" the fabric. Discuss as a class, writing their ideas on the whiteboard. Additionally, have them record their ideas individually in their science journals. Encourage illustrations of the process.

Introducing The Experiment:
1. Ask students how they think fabrics were colored before commercial dye. What kinds of things could you use? How long do you think it would take?
2. Explain that we will be doing a scientific experiment, dying our own fabrics using the same materials as they did hundreds and thousands of years ago.
3. Bring out the box of plants, flowers, and berries. Ask students to identify each item, and record it in their science journals. Have them record their predictions as to what color and shade they believe the different materials will dye the fabric.
4. Continue the brainstorming process with the students. Encourage them to wonder what would happen when we change some of the directions. Through questioning, students will ask what will happen with different amounts of water (more water, less water, NO water), different amounts of dye material, how finely the dye material is crushed/blended, amount of time boiling, and amount of fabric used. To aid students in their questioning techniques, a chart could be provided on the whiteboard. First, the class would list all of the different things they could change. Second, they would list HOW they could change them. Last, they would predict what would happen with each of the changes.


Procedure:
1. Assign groups of four in the class (pre-arranged by teacher). Have students put on smocks, aprons, or old men's shirts. Explain to students that they will get to choose 1-2 items out of the box of dye materials (plants, berries, flowers) located in the front of the room. Once they have chosen their items (i.e. cherries and spinach), they are to record their choices in their journals.
2. Adult helpers will then circulate around the room, finely chopping the plants and flowers in blenders (brought in by the teachers and parent volunteers). If the group members chose berries, those may be placed in a closed Ziplock bag and crushed gently by the students. Students will be instructed to fill the Ziplock bags full of berries, then close the bags halfway. Students are then to lay the bags flat, gently pushing the extra air out of the bags (demonstrated by the teacher). Seal the bags completely, have students gently "squish" them with only their fingertips (to avoid bags popping, and potential messes).
3. While the adult helpers are blending the materials, students may come to the materials center and pick up rubber gloves, two plastic containers and the watering can. Students should then return to the table with these items.
4. Ask students to revisit their brainstorming chart on the whiteboard. Have them make choices regarding the variables, record the choices and their predictions in their science lab books.
5. Wearing rubber gloves, the students will scoop up the chopped/crushed material and place it in the different plastic containers. They will then fill the tubs with as much water as they choose, with at least enough water to cover the dye material.

DAY TWO:
6. Aprons and smocks are worn again. Review safety procedures regarding stoves and heat. Explain that students are to observe what is going on in the pot, and to take notes. Adult helpers will be the only ones stirring the materials and working with the stove. Send students in their groups of four, with an adult helper, to the cafeteria to simmer their plant/berry/flower material for hour, stirring occasionally. Strain each dye in a colander in the sink, using rubber gloves. Each child can take a turn squeezing out the water from the dyed fabric once it has cooled, pushing it with the wooden spoon.
7. While other students are in the cafeteria, have the rest of the class write instructions for finishing the experiment at home. Be sure to have students include safety precautions (about heat, messes, and wearing aprons!). (Letters would have gone out to parents ahead of time, explaining the process, and asking for volunteers.)

AT HOME:
8. Volunteer families would take home a few yards of cotton/muslin, strained dye, and pots. Following the class' instructions, they would wet the cotton, and put it in a pot with the dye so that the fabric is completely covered. The fabric and dye would be simmered for at least half an hour, stirring it occasionally.
9. Families should record their procedure together. How long did they simmer the fabric for? How much fabric and dye did they use? When they stirred the fabric and dye, at which points did it get darker? When did they decide that it was "done?"
10. The fabric should be left to cool in the pot. Once cooled, it should be rinsed in baths of lukewarm water, and hung to dry (not in direct sunlight). Students might want to record any changes in the fabric as it dried.

Closure and Recap:
1. When the fabric is brought back to school, hang the pieces around the room on "clotheslines." Review our procedures as a whole class. Ask students and the adult helpers to share their procedures and findings at home. Where were we surprised?
2. Record results and new questions in our science journals. Reflect on how we might conduct this experiment differently in the future? Is there anything different the students would like to try? How could we make the SAME colors again? Would we get the exact same color? How could we be sure?
3. Explain to students that we will be using this fabric to create a quilt of our very own, choosing and designing patterns, and measuring and cutting the pieces.

Assessment Activities Teacher observation will be used to assess their group learning techniques.

The science journals will be used to assess whether students followed directions, made predictions, and recorded results. Specifically, students should include illustrations and a fair amount of detail as to the colors they chose, and their predictions as to how dark or light the fabric would become and WHY.

The dyed fabric itself is an assessment tool. Was the experiment successful? If not, was it due to scientific inquiry and different methods that have been explained?

Learner Factors To be completed Fall 1999. Individual differences for students with disabilities, IEPs, and multi-modal learners will be accommodated.

Environment Factors Student grouping will be heterogeneous by ability, race, gender, and culture. Class setup should be changed to maximize the safety and mobility of the students. Clusters of four desks (to form a large worktable) would be preferable.
Safety procedures for handling dye and materials that can stain will be discussed.
Safety procedures for working with stoves and heat sources will also be discussed, and adult helpers will handle all heat sources.
Reflection To be completed Fall 1999.


Adapted from:

Bosak, S. V. (1991). Science is. . .(2nd Edition). Ontario, Canada: Scholastic
Canada, Ltd.


This lesson on Natural Dyes directly relates to New Standards Science Standards S3a, S5f, S7b, and S8a.


" The student produces evidence that demonstrates understanding of:

S3a--Properties of Earth materials, such as water and gases; and the properties of rocks and soils, such as texture, color, and ability to retain water."

"The student demonstrates scientific inquiry and problem solving by using thoughtful questioning and reasoning strategies, common sense and conceptual understanding from Science Standards 1 to 4, and appropriate methods to investigate the natural world; that is, the student:

S5f--Works individually and in teams to collect and share information
and ideas."

"The student demonstrates effective scientific communication by clearly describing aspects of the natural world using accurate data, graphs, or other appropriate media to convey depth of conceptual understanding in science; that is, the student:

S7b--Uses facts to support conclusions."


"The student demonstrates scientific competence by completing projects drawn from the following kinds of investigations, including at least one full investigation each year and, over the course of elementary school, investigations that integrate several aspects of Science Standards 1 to 7 and represent all four of the kinds of investigation:

S8a--An experiment, such as conducting a fair test. . .

A single project may draw on more than one kind of investigation. A
full investigation includes:
 Procedures that are safe, humane, and ethical; and that respect
privacy and property rights."


S3a is demonstrated when students identify the different types of natural materials made available in the experiment. Students will also predict what colors and shades the Earth materials will dye the fabric.

S5f is demonstrated when the students are able to work cooperatively to both hypothesize and conduct the experiments. Additionally, students are expected to work individually to make predictions about the experiment during the lesson.

S7b is demonstrated when students record their results after dying the fabric (colors, shades, intensity), using evidence (fabric) to support their conclusions.

S8a is demonstrated when the students follow scientific experimental procedure (predicting, performing the experiment, recording results, and making conclusions).

American Quilts
Language Arts Lesson--3rd Grade
The Patchwork Quilt by Valerie Flournoy


Objectives Students will be able to conclude how different pieces of material connect together to create a family story. (LA Standard 7*)

Students will be able to relate that family and shared history is important to many people. (LA Standard 9*)

Students will discover how very important order is in a story for it to make sense. (LA Standard 5*)

Students will practice literature discussions, answering a deepening level of comprehension questions. (LA Standard 5*)

*For detail regarding these standards, please refer to the end of this lesson plan.

Instructional Materials & Resources The Patchwork Quilt, by Valerie Flournoy
Flipchart
Construction Paper
Scissors
Markers, Pens
Book Club Discussion Questions
Sequencing Chart
Quilt Block Paper

Instructional Activities & Tasks ACTIVATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE:
1. Have a brief discussion about The Quilt Story, by Tony Johnson. Ask students to recap the story, and to define mementos. . .they may refer to their mementos around the room, and their bulletin boards.
INTRODUCTION
2. First, always read the story for enjoyment and feel ("trying it on".) We would then re-read the story, stopping throughout to identify important events (hopefully a skill we'd been working on. . .), and write them on the flipchart.
3. In teams of two, I would assign students an event, and give them construction paper, scissors, and a marker. Students would be asked to create a quilt block and to write their event on top of the quilt block. (Note: If there happened to be more students than events, blocks could be added for the title, author, and "the end.")
4. After the students had completed the activity, we would return to the story circle with all of our cards. I would then shuffle the cards, and tape them in random order up on the easel. A child would read the story aloud. We would discuss whether or not it made sense. As a class, we would re-order the quilt blocks into the order we felt was right. We would re-read our story to see if it made sense and if the events were in the right order.
5. Again, we would read The Patchwork Quilt and we would transition into our "book club" discussion (stressing different levels of comprehension). Beginning with the literal question, then to the text inference question, and then skipping to the school prior knowledge question. After many students had the chance to participate, we would move on to the life prior knowledge and applied question. (Please refer to the question guide at the end of this lesson.)
CLOSURE/RECAP:
6. We would close our content lesson by asking why people use quilts, hopefully eliciting responses about warmth and mementos. We would visit different points in the book, looking at the different patches and the special occasions they came from. We would then move in for the BIG connection question: "If you could make a patchwork quilt, where would you get the fabric from? Why?"
7. Students would have the opportunity to share orally, and then we would return to our seats. We would write a few sentences about what we had shared, and as a culminating activity we would illustrate our writing. . .our special memory quilt block.
8. These could be posted on a bulletin board like a matching game. Sentences would be along the bottom or side, and the quilt patches would be "sewn" together with construction paper borders. Visitors and children in the classroom would have to guess whose quilt block matched which memory.

Assessment Activities Students will be observed by the teacher to assess their ability to communicate orally, express their ideas clearly, and listen when others are speaking.

Students' understanding of sequence will be evaluated through their completion of the patchwork sequencing chart.

Students' comprehension of the story will be assessed through their participation in the "book club" discussion.

Learner Factors To be completed Fall 1999. Individual differences for students with disabilities, IEPs, and multi-modal learners will be accommodated.

Environment Factors A large group sharing area is required. If this does not exist in the classroom, desks would have to be moved so that students could sit in a circle for sharing and book club discussion. The flip chart needs to be visible to all students.

A bulletin board should be cleared to make room to display students' work. Additionally, a pocket or space should be provided for students and guests to record their guesses regarding the quilt blocks.
Reflection To be completed Fall 1999.

This lesson on sequencing, comprehension skills, and The Patchwork Quilt directly relates to The Rhode Island Language Arts Standards 5, 7, and 9.

Standard 5: AWARENESS AND EVALUATION OF LEARNING PROCESSES
All students will know the processes used to construct and
convey meaning through text and will develop and apply criteria for
the evaluation and appreciation of their own and others' texts.

Standard 7: ENDURING THEMES
All students will use themes and topics from text to make connections
and demonstrate an understanding of commonalties and diversity
through exploration of universal issues.

Standard 9: LANGUAGE ARTS AND CITIZENSHIP
All students will use language effectively and responsibly as members
of a democratic society.

The Patchwork Quilt, by Valerie Flournoy
Book Club Discussion Questions

Question Type Discussion Question
Literal Who received the quilt at the end?

Text Inference Why did Momma begin working on Grandma's quilt?

Applied to New Content If you could make a patchwork quilt of your own, where would you get the fabric scraps from? Why?

School Prior Knowledge Why is it important to cut all of the quilt squares the same size?

Life Prior Knowledge Why do people use quilts?


NAME: DATE: #:

The Patchwork Quilt, by Valerie Flournoy

1. Shuffle the cards. Place them on the squares below. Read the story. Does it make sense? Why or why not?
2. Shuffle the cards again. Try and place the cards in the correct order. Read the story cards again. Does it make sense now? Why or why not?







Illustrate your special memory in the quilt block(s) above. Remember, DO NOT put your name anywhere on the block. People will try to match your written memory with your drawing!

American Quilts
Language Arts Lesson--3rd Grade
Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky
by Faith Ringgold


Objectives Students will identify and define key terms regarding slavery and the Underground Railroad. (LA Standard 5*)

Students will distinguish between the varying degrees of freedom of African Americans through the use of the vocabulary thermometer. (LA Standard 2*)

Students will create concept-related vocabulary structures (webs and thermometers) as a class. (LA Standard 3*)

*For detail regarding these standards, please refer to the end of this lesson plan.

Instructional Materials & Resources Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky, by Faith Ringgold
Vocabulary Web
Vocabulary Thermometer
Flipchart
Markers, Pens
Journal Paper
Construction Paper, Scissors
Overhead Projector, Sheets, Markers

Instructional Activities & Tasks
DAY ONE


DAY TWO ACTIVATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE:
9. Have a brief discussion about what we've learned so far about the uses of quilts. Brainstorm with the children and record their responses on the flipchart. Ask them to "look around the room for clues." (e.g. bulletin boards, books, learning center)
10. Take a picture walk through the story, and ask if anyone recognizes the character in the book (Cassie is the main character in Tar Beach.). Explain that we will be looking at yet another use for quilts, one that has to do with slavery and freedom. Ask students to define those terms in their own words, and record them on the flipchart.
INTRODUCTION
11. Read the story through once for pleasure and "feel." Explain to students that we will be "working in the book" to learn more about slavery and the Underground Railroad.
12. During the second reading of Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky, I would stop mid-stream and identify a character (Cassie, a train passenger, the seamstress in NYC) and ask where the kids thought these particular characters were along the path to freedom. I would ask them to seek out words in the text (their context clues!) if they didn't know or guess right away. We would follow Cassie's path throughout the book, and trace a slave's path from capture to freedom.
13. After we had worked on the flipchart, and recorded the vocabulary words pertaining to slavery and freedom, we would record them on our own vocabulary thermometers. As a class, we would decide on which vocabulary words to use, and where they belonged (with some assistance/vocabulary from the teacher where necessary).
14. The next day, students would be told that we would be learning even more vocabulary about slavery and the Underground Railroad. We would re-read Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky, students taking turns in round-robin fashion. The teacher would have an empty "shell" of a vocabulary web up on the overhead projector.
15. Asking the students to put on their "book detective" hats, I would ask them to find clues or "evidence" in the story--words to place in the categories of the web. I would also probe students for "new" words that they think would fit--or perhaps another category on the web that they might like to include (something I may have missed!) (Please refer to the potential student, teacher, and book generated list at the end of this lesson. The goal is for students to identify and define most of the vocabulary for themselves.)
CLOSURE/RECAP:
16. To ensure children's comprehension of the vocabulary, students will make a map of the Underground Railroad (a very rough map). They would be given people and items (safety houses, quilts, conductors, slaves, plantation owners) to place along the route. Children are also given word labels to stick next to the corresponding picture--connecting the visual with the literal.

Assessment Activities Students' understanding of vocabulary will be evaluated through their completion of the Underground Railroad map.

Students will be observed by the teacher to assess their ability to communicate orally, express their ideas clearly, and listen when others are speaking.

Learner Factors To be completed Fall 1999. Individual differences for students with disabilities, IEPs, and multi-modal learners will be accommodated.

Environment Factors A large group sharing area is required. If this does not exist in the classroom, desks would have to be moved so that students could sit in a circle for sharing and book club discussion. The flip chart and overhead projector need to be visible to all students.

Reflection To be completed Fall 1999.


This lesson on concept-related vocabulary, and Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky directly relates to The Rhode Island Language Arts Standards 2, 3, and 5.

Standard 2: RESPONSE TO TEXT
All students will demonstrate the ability to understand and
respond to a wide variety of text.

Standard 3: CREATION AND PRESENTATION OF TEXT
All students will compose clear text in a variety of forms for many
purposes.

Standard 5: AWARENESS AND EVALUATION OF LEARNING PROCESSES
All students will know the processes used to construct and
convey meaning through text and will develop and apply criteria for
the evaluation and appreciation of their own and others' texts.

Word Lists:
Book Teacher Student
bounty hunter abolitionist flying
conductor quilts ghosts
escape safety house runaway
freeborn
Harriet Tubman
jump the broom
pass to freedom
plantation
promised land
reunited
slave
slavery
Underground Railroad

American Quilts
Social Studies Lesson--3rd Grade
Quilts and the Underground Railroad

Objectives Students will identify the need for slaves to escape to freedom. (NCSS Standard Xa*)
(continued from Language Arts Lesson #2)

Students will identify quilt block patterns by name and by sight. (NCSS Standard Ic*)

Students will analyze quilt block patterns to find the symbolic meaning. (NCSS Standard IId*)

Students will create and evaluate directions from the school to the park. (NCSS Standard IIIa*)

Students will conclude that freedom quilts played an important role in helping slaves make their way along the Underground Railroad. (NCSS Standard Ic*)

Students will practice cooperative group learning skills. (NCSS Standard IVh*)

*For details regarding standards, please refer to the end of this lesson plan.
Instructional Materials & Resources Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky
Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt
Scholastic News: Freedom Road
Vocabulary Web and Thermometer
(From LA Lesson #2)
Flipchart w/ Paper
Note Paper, Journal Writing Paper
Pencils, Crayons, Markers
"Clue Quilt" Worksheet
Overhead (O/H) Projector, O/H Sheets, O/H Marker
Freedom Quilt Block Pattern Templates
(w/ names on separate cards)
1" Square Quilting Graph Paper

Instructional Activities and Tasks

DAY ONE



DAY TWO

DAY THREE


DAY FOUR


Reviewing Prior Knowledge:
1. Re-read Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky by Faith Ringgold.
2. Review vocabulary from Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky (Language Arts Lesson #2). Use both the vocabulary web and thermometer.
3. Ask students in whole-class format: "What is slavery?" "Where did slaves escape to?" "Why" "How did they get there?" "Who helped them?"
4. Revisit the place in the book where the quilt was a secret signal for Cassie to enter the house.

Introduction:
1. "We are going to read a story about a young girl who made a quilt that helped slaves escape along the Underground Railroad. Not quite like the signal in Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky, but a different way of helping. Let's read the story together, and see how Sweet Clara helps people find freedom!" (At this point, pass out a piece of notepaper to each student.)
2. Read Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt, by Deborah Hopkinton, aloud to the students. Stop throughout the story to ask students if they know how Clara is going to help people to freedom. Ask them to record their own answers on a piece of paper.
3. After reading the story and recording our answers to the literature questions ("What is slavery?" "Where did slaves escape to?" "Why" "How did they get there?" "Who helped them?"), students will "Think, Pair, and Share." First, students will have 2 minutes to pair with their neighbor and share and compare ideas and answers.
CLOSURE/RECAP:
1. Next, the entire class will share their answers, and they will be recorded on a flipchart.
2. Explain to students that we will work with this story again tomorrow, and that they need to save their notepapers in their Social Studies folder.


REVIEWING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE:
1. Take a picture walk through Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt. Ask students (as a whole class) to retell the story in their own words ("Tell us what it's about!").
2. Explain to students that we are going to re-read the story, and our goal for the day is to search for clues (more detail) as to HOW Clara made the map.

INTRODUCTION:
1. Pass out a "clue quilt" worksheet to each child. While they listen to the story, each student should be recording their ideas about HOW Clara knew to place rivers where they belonged, fields where they belonged, and so on.
2. Tell students that different people pick up on different clues--so we will be practicing our "Think-Pair-Share" technique, just like we did yesterday. (Students may need a reminder of the procedures.)
3. Re-read the story to the children, making modifications (i.e. pausing, slower rate of reading) to allow children the opportunity to both listen to the story, and to have time to record the details. (Note-taking skills at this point are minimal, if any. Be patient, and read slowly.)
4. Have students work with the same "Pair" partner as yesterday (making adjustments for groups that do not work well together). Ask students to compare "clue quilts," and explain that it is more than alright to add one of their neighbor's clues to their own quilt.

CLOSURE/RECAP:
1. Bring students back together as a whole class. Fill in a giant "clue quilt" on flipchart paper. Be sure to discuss (or lead discussion to) the different types of fabric used, as well as directions (N, S, E, and W), number of fields, landmarks, and so on.
2. HOMEWORK: Have students write directions to get from the school to the town park. If they are unable to go to the park, or pass by it on the bus on the way home, ask them to imagine they are walking there and to record their best guess. Explain to students that we will be using these directions tomorrow to create maps of our own.

Reviewing Prior Knowledge:
1. Review our "clue quilt" as a class. Point to various points on the "clue quilt" and ask students how this helped the slaves escape, or what it "told" the slaves (where to go, direction, what to look for).

INTRODUCTION:
1. "Now that we know what kinds of clues slaves put into freedom quilts, we're going to read about the different quilt patterns and the clues they held for runaway slaves to find their way along the Underground Railroad.
2. Read the Scholastic article together as a class. Discuss why students think it would be important for different slaves making quilts to use the same symbols. Record their answers on the flipchart. "How do you think they created those symbols?" "Why couldn't they just write out directions?"
3. Review the directions students wrote for homework from the school to the park. Use the shared writing technique, recording different sentences from different students on the board. If a student disagrees with a direction, they may disagree by raising their hands, and calmly stating the change they would like to make. Children then vote on which directive they feel is correct.

CLOSURE/RECAP:
1. Write the final copy together on the overhead projector (modeling the importance of a final, published copy). Praise the students for their hard work, and relate to the children that they will be creating their own freedom quilt tomorrow. They will be using the patterns they learned about today in the Scholastic article and the class' directions to the park.

Reviewing Prior Knowledge:
1. Provide each student with a copy of the class-created directions to the park. Read and review these directions as an entire class.
2. Review the quilt block patterns in the Scholastic article. Mix the review by asking for names of patterns that you point out to students (pre-made templates in the front of the classroom), and asking them to point to patterns in the article when you state the name of a specific quilt block.

INTRODUCTION:
1. Provide each student with quilting graph paper (1" squares). Have them first make a thumbnail sketch (referring to templates in the front of the room) of the quilt block they would use next to the corresponding direction.
2. Once students have planned which block to use for which direction, have them draw their freedom quilt on the quilting graph paper. Students are encouraged to use colors. Ask that the school (starting point) begin at the bottom of the quilt, and that the park (freedom destination) be located at the top of the quilt.


CLOSURE/RECAP:
1. Take a walk, following our quilt maps. Invite
students to do the same, with their parents.
Explain that they should teach their parents how
to interpret the quilt blocks, and see if they can
get to the park together!
2. Give students a piece of journal writing paper.
Ask them to reflect, and think about what it
would be like to be Sweet Clara. Tell them to
write one (good third-grade) paragraph, telling us
why Sweet Clara's job was so very important.

Assessment Activities Through observation and note-taking during whole-class discussion, I will be able to assess whether or not students understand the need for slaves to escape to freedom, as well as their knowledge of quilt block patterns. Additionally, I will be able to monitor their progress in developing cooperative learning skills.

The individual quilt maps from the school to the park will assess whether or not the students grasp the symbolic meaning behind the quilt patterns.

Through group work, shared writing, and the homework assignment, I will be able to assess each student's ability to create and evaluate directions.

The journal writing at the end of the entire lesson allows the student to express their understanding of the importance of freedom quilts, and the role they played in helping slaves make their way along the Underground Railroad.

Learner Factors To be completed Fall 1999.

This lesson has incorporated the following multiple intelligences: spatial (creating accurate directions from the school to the park, creating story quilts in the right directional order), linguistic (writing directions, recording clues), interpersonal ("Think, Pair, Share" technique), intrapersonal (reflecting on what it would be like to be Sweet Clara), and bodily-kinesthetic (following directions and walking to the park).

All students with disabilities will be accommodated to the best of the teacher's ability and knowledge, specifically following any modifications required by the child's IEP.

Additionally, connections were deliberately made between the content (freedom quilts as maps) and the children's own world (getting from school to the park).

Environmental Factors Student grouping will be mixed between whole-class interaction, individual work, and paired work to accommodate as many different learning strengths as possible, while allowing for development in weaker areas.

Physical set-up of the classroom may remain the same. Safety concerns would be the supervision and behavior of students when walking to the park. Adult volunteers should be solicited to allow for maximum supervision. Procedures for walking safely in a city should be reviewed.

Reflection To be completed Fall 1999.

This lesson on quilts and the Underground Railroad directly relates to the standards from the National Council on Social Studies in Curriculum Standards for Social Studies:

Ic: Describe ways in which language, stories, folktales, music, and artistic creations serve as expressions of culture and influence behavior of people living in a particular culture.

IId: Identify and use various sources for reconstructing the past, such as documents, letters, diaries, maps, textbooks, photos, and others.

IIIa: Construct and use mental maps of locales, regions, and the world that demonstrate understanding of relative location, direction, size, and shape.

IVh: Work independently and cooperatively to accomplish goals.

Xa: Identify key ideals of the United States' democratic republican form of government, such as individual human dignity, liberty, justice, equality, and the rule of law, and discuss their application in specific situation

NAME: DATE: #:

CLUE QUILT

How did Sweet Clara know where to place rivers, fields, and other landmarks where they belonged?
Record different clues from the story in each box below.





American Quilts
Culminating Activity --3rd Grade
Creating a Story Quilt

Objective: Students will create a story quilt representative of their school life.

1. Students will define a story quilt. Explain to the students that we will be making our own story quilt about our life in the third grade.
2. Brainstorm potential subjects with students on the board. What important things have happened to us so far this year? What did we especially like? Together, narrow the number of events down to 12.
3. Once a large list is compiled, break the students into groups of two. The pairs may pick one topic from the brainstorm list. (Teacher assistance may be necessary, and encourage the students that each and every event is important and needs to be covered.)
4. Students are to write a paragraph about their event. Usual writing procedure (webs, blueprint, rough draft, and final draft) is to be followed. Additionally, students are expected to come up with 2-3 designs/illustrations of their event.
5. Using fabric crayons and markers, students are given a square piece of cotton/muslin and are asked to illustrate their square with their chosen design. They are asked to leave room around the edge to write their story in small print around the sides of the square. Several will be modeled and on display for the students' reference.
6. Family and teacher volunteers will sew these to the fabric the class dyed in science class.
7. The finished quilt will be signed by the students, and displayed for the entire school.
American Quilts
Culminating Assessment --3rd Grade
Creating a Quilt Portfolio

Objective: Students will appraise the work they have completed throughout the unit, and reflect upon the quality and content of their learning.
Lesson Portfolio Piece
Introductory Writing and drawing about a future memento.
Math Worksheet with an original quilt pattern (includes measurements and numbers of shapes).
Science Science journal entry about dying fabric with natural materials.
Language Arts (Sequencing) Patchwork chart with correct sequence of the story.
Language Arts (Vocabulary) Underground Railroad map, correctly labeled with pictures and words.
Social Studies Quilt maps from the school to the park, along with the written directions.

For each portfolio piece, students will be required to fill out a reflection form.

In order to receive a satisfactory grade for the unit, the teacher and student will review the various portfolio pieces. Students must complete 5 out of the 6 assessment pieces, and reflect on them to earn an "A." With each assignment or self reflection missing, the students will earn one letter grade less (e.g. 4 assignments = "B"; 3 assignments = "C"). Assignments with less than 3 assignments completed and reflected upon will not be accepted.

American Quilts
My Portfolio
Name: Date: #:

EVIDENCE: This is my
LEARNING: The most important thing I learned from this activity was
QUALITY: This is an example of really great work because I
On a scale of 1-10, I would rate this activity a:
Something I liked about this activity:
Something I would change about this activity:
American Quilts
General Learning Outcomes, & Specific Goals

1. Understands how quilts are part of cultural heritage.
1.1 Compares and contrasts the different ways that quilts are used to communicate cultural heritage and history.
1.2 Identifies three different cultures within the United
States that use quilts to communicate cultural heritage
and history.
1.3 Demonstrates understanding by identifying examples from literature.

2. Create naturally dyed fabric.
2.1 Conducts a scientific experiment in cooperative groups of
2-3.
2.2 Compares and Records student-chosen variables and
results while dying fabric.
2.3 Demonstrates and describes how to use natural materials
to dye fabrics.
2.4 Shares the data in both graphic and written form with
the class as a whole.

3. Knows how to make a story quilt.
3.1 Chooses 5-6 significant events during the fall semester.
3.2 Writes short stories in groups about each of these
events.
3.3 Creates illustrations for the stories on fabric.
3.3 Sews the "story blocks" together to create a story quilt.

4. Analyzes geometric patterns in quilts.
4.1 Identifies ways in which geometric patterns are used and changed to represent different images and pictures.
4.2 Creates pictures and images of their own using geometric shapes and patterns.
4.3 Selects colors and forms that will, in their opinion, express an image clearly to others, given certain shapes and materials.


5. Understands role of quilts in Underground Railroad.
5.1 Examines literature and performs research as an entire
class.
5.2 Lists 2-3 ways in which quilts were used to help slaves
find freedom.
5.3 Identifies patterns in quilts and describes what they
show runaway slaves to do.