Grade: all

#1413. Decoding, Reading , and Motivation to Read

Reading/Writing, level: all
Posted Fri Nov 26 12:06:57 PST 1999 by Rick Lynn (
Variables of Intelligence and Esteem
Special Ed. Teacher, Jacksonville, Florida, USA
Materials Required: letter and word cards either on paper or designed for overhead (multiple students)
Activity Time: normal reading lesson each day 45 minutes
Concepts Taught: differential insertion of sounds, decoding, visualization, independent word approach skills

When I teach reading or tutoring the skill, I seek to enable the student to approach new words with confidence they can insert the different sounds to arrive at the correct pronunciation. I do this very slowly and help the student become sensitive too and aware of the sounds.

Speed is not the issue at the time, . begin by very slowly going over the sounds with the student - not just the one sounds, but the multiple sounds of letters. I teach the beginning and ending sounds for l, m, n, & r. Not teaching the beginning and ending sounds together and noting reference to their placements in the word hurts students who use some reading programs. I teach the sounds of c as in city and click; also - also g as in go and giant Again I teach these sounds very slowly so the student hears and is sensitive to the sounds of the letters. I ask him slowly, "Can you hear it?"

I teach the same way, the multiple sounds of the vowels: a as in ate, at, all; e as in eat and pet, i as in ice, it; o as in open, top, & to; u as in use, blue, & pup; y as in yes, dye & party. I go over all the sounds as a warmup and to help gear the student to begin reading more slowly to use the skill of independently inserting the different sounds on his own.

I then present him with words one at a time that I know he does not know how to immediately pronounce (but is definitely)in his oral vocabulary. I tell him that he has heard these words before. This also is an important skill in learning new words. In this way the student hears the sounds of words he is reading and compares these sounds to words in his oral vocabulary. When he is older, he will begin to learn completely new words based in a more complex
way or developed recognition of how words should sound.

As he begins, I get him to hear the individual sounds as he very slowly approaches them one by one and links them together. For example the word "apple". He may approach the first sound with an A as in ate then p to say apple
with a long A.

This is okay at first then you ask him if that sounds right and he will say no. At this time you begin teaching him (important skill) of how to begin inserting different sounds into new words and arriving at the correct pronunciation. You ask him to insert another sound. he may say A as in at or he may forget. You give him the multiple sounds again and have him choose another sound to use.
He uses the A as in at and then reads the word. It comes out correctly as apple. Learning this skill of inserting different sounds to learn new words is gratifying to a student a really builds their confidence over time. It will give them a method to new words in the future.

He is now learning the skill of inserting diferent sounds. You continue down your list (also a warmup) for developing this skill. He continues very slowly bringing the individual sounds together and inserting the different sounds arrive at the correct pronunciation. Help him to do this on his own but provide (cues) of support when he forgets.

I then find a reader that is along his present level but still has some difficult words for him. I get him to begin reading very slowly and visualizing or seeing pictures with the words he is reading (important skill for fluency, comprehension and for higher math and science skills). when he comes to word he does not know, I reinforce the skill of switching gears for a second and remember the technique he learned of slowly going from the first letter and connecting the individual sounds. The student now has a wonderful tool to begin locating and pronuouncing new words in his written vocabulary. By teaching him how to switch gears and use this skill, you will create confidence and greater motivation to read and develop fluency in reading. He will begin to learn these words and will move on to other more complex reading.