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Grade: Middle
Subject: History

#2109. Who were the Pharaohs of the Pyramid Age?

History, level: Middle
Posted Sat Jan 20 08:19:51 PST 2001 by Mr. C. F. Lawrence Jr (
Frederick Douglass Academy, Manhattan, New York
Materials Required: Egypt Revisited- Ivan Van Sertima
Activity Time: 1 week
Concepts Taught: African Genius, Pyramid building, Development of empirical civilization

Mr. Lawrence 8A
7th Grade Social Studies

Chandler, W. B. (1991). Of Gods and Men: Egypts Old Kingdom: Origin of Egypt. In I. V. Sertima (Ed.), Egypt Revisited. (2nd ed.). (pp. 145-160). United States: African Civilizations, Inc.
ISBN: 0-385-47454-7

Aim: Who were the Pharaohs of the Pyramid Age?
* = (videotape # 139 (Sneferu))
** = dictation from me

I. The Second Dynasty
A. Ends with
1. Queen Nemathap
2. King Khasekemui

II. The Third Dynasty
A. Djoser : son of Khasekemui and Nemathap
1. African name = Neterikhet
2. ruled 2639 BC to 2620 BC
3. exploited copper mines of Sinai
4. expanded the borders of Kemet
B. Imhotep - chief advisor of Djoser
1. son of Kanofer (architect) and Khreduonkh (Mom)
2. husband of Ronfrenofert
3. medical accomplishments
a. treated over 200 diseases
1) 15 - abdomen 4) 29 -eyes (**includes cataracts)
2) 11 - bladder 5) 18 - skin
3) 10 - rectum **6) successful brain surgery
b. knowledge of circulatory system
1) 4,000 year before Europeans
4. Architectural Accomplishments
a. Step Pyramid
1) Six steps
2) base: 26 ft high; 227 ft. wide
**3) approximately 1,000 workers
**4) two decades to build (ask them how many years are 2 decades)
5) dominated Saqqara skyline (necropolis of Men-Nefer)
5. Other positions
a. priest, scribe, sage (wise man)
b. astronomer, grand architect, philosopher (Greek for lover of wisdom)
C. King Huni
1. last pharaoh of third dynasty

III. The Fourth Dynasty
A. Sneferu: first pharaoh
**1. inspired by Djoser
2. pyramid built by PAID labor
**3. first pharaoh with cartouche
**4. Trade Expedition
**a. Lebanon (north) - cedar wood
**b. Sinai (east) - copper, turquoise, & other minerals
**c. Nubia (south) - gold
**5. The Maiden and The Amulet
One of Sneferus female rowers lost her turquoise amulet in the lake.
Sneferu offered to replace it, but she refused him because she wanted
her specific amulet. Sneferu, then called on his priest who separated the
lake, and retrieved her amulet.

**B. Sneferus pyramids (architects: his sons)
**1. Collapsed Pyramid (what happened) {have kids skip 7 lines}
This pyramid was originally intended to be a step pyramid, but when it was
completed, Sneferu was still alive. A pyramid could not be completed before the king died, so they extended this step pyramid several times. Then they filled in the steps with fine whit limestone, thus creating the first true pyramid. However, the limestones were not properly and securely anchored into the core of the pyramid, rather they rested on the slanted smooth steps
of the step pyramid. This caused the stones to slip; the first recorded technological disaster in history.
**2. Bent Pyramid: 54 to 43 (explain) {have kids skip 5 lines}
When half of the pyramid was built, the walls began to crack and cave in due to too much weight on the hollow burial chamber. Cedar beams were brought in to prevent the walls from caving in. The top half of the pyramid had its angle to reduce to decrease the number of stones needed for completion. This in turn decreased the weight.
**3. The Red Pyramid: 1st true pyramid
**C. Khufu - son of Sneferu
**1. Greek name: Cheops
2. Other African name: Khnum-Khuf
3. Great Pyramid: 13.11 acres
a. 2.3 million blocks of stone
1) 2.5 tons = lightest
2) 70 tons = heaviest