Grade: Middle
Subject: Literature

#2449. Unit for Red Badge of Courage

Literature, level: Middle
Posted Fri Nov 30 07:35:27 PST 2001 by Denise Jones (
North Grenville D.H.S., Kemptville, Ontario, Canada
Materials Required: text
Activity Time: 2-3 weeks
Concepts Taught: conflict: person vs person, person vs self, character development, learning from history

The Red Badge of Courage
by Stephen Crane
Chapter 1
1. What is the main character's reaction to the war which is taking place?(p.3)
2. What is the significance of Crane making historic references such as to Homer and the Greeks?
3. Comment on the dialogue and vocabulary thus far in the story. What does it tell you about place and time? Why is it important that it never be altered, should be story be reedited and updated?
4. What does Henry's mother tell him about his duty when enlisted? (P.5)
5. What juxtaposition of imagery is found on p. 6? This type of contrast will be found often throughout this story. Why is this an effective technique to use?
6. The first of many references to colour is made on p.7. To what does "a part of a vast blue demonstration" refer?
7. How does the author consistently refer to his main character, instead of using his name? Why would he have done this?
8. Define foreshadowing. An example of foreshadowing, again a commonly used technique, is found on pgs. 7-8. Where is this example, and why is it foreshadowing? Why is the wording of this example important to the technique of foreshadowing?
9. Many terms will be used which, historically, you might not be familiar with. To what/whom do the words 'Yank' and 'Johnnies' refer to?

Chapter 2
1. Define metaphor. Metaphorically, to what is the youth comparing bravery and battle? p.11
2. The youth fears two things. What are they? P. 12
3. Explain the line, "He was convicted by himself of many shameful crimes against the gods of traditions." p. 12
4. Throughout this chapter, as with the novel, colour is an important factor. Find three passages where colour is employed to effectively capture/establish mood. Cite the passages with their page numbers.
5. Define personification. Find an example of personification. Cite the passage, and its page number. P.16, 18

Chapter 3
1. Explain the passage on p. 21: "...he instantly saw that it would be impossible for him to escape from the regiment. It inclosed him. And there were iron laws of tradition and law on four sides. He was in a moving box." What figurative device is this?
2. What evidence is there that the youth's fear of battle and his own merit within battle are increasing?
3. What reassurance does the youth try to give himself that he will be able to stand in battle? P.24
Chapter 4
1. What discussion takes place at the beginning of this chapter?
2. Define simile. Find two examples of this device within this chapter.
3. What mood is left for the youth and the reader at the end of this chapter? How is this achieved?

Chapter 5
1. Of what does the youth have a memory at the beginning of the chapter? How is this blended in with the reality of his current situation?
2. Find two more examples of simile. Why do you think this is such a recurring device used by Crane?
3. How does the youth initially react when faced with the reality of a battle? p.33
4. What is 'war atmosphere'?
What is 'battle sleep'? Would both phrases be specific only to this civil war? Explain you response.
5. Find an example of repetition on p.36. Why would this style device be used?
6. What contrast does the youth himself note at the end of this chapter?

Chapter 6
1. Why is the youth compared, metaphorically, to a 'jaded horse'? Why is this description appropriate?
2. List 5 words or phrases from p.39 which capture the vision and mood of what the youth saw and felt. How do these choices help to explain his decision to flee?
3. Why did the youth run on this occasion, not during the first encounter?
4. How does the mood of the youth, as he flees, contrast with the mood of those fighting?
Give proof.
5. Explain the passage on p.40: "Death about to thrust him between the shoulder blades was far more dreadful than death about to smite him between the eyes."

Chapter 7
1. What is a moral dilemma? Explain the effectiveness of the first line of this chapter. How does it focus the reader on the issue of moral dilemma?
2. Why does the mood and thinking of the youth turn against his comrades, who stayed and fought?
3. An image of sanctuary is given on p.45. Cite the passage which holds this image, and explain the concept of sanctuary. Where else in the chapter is this image seen?
4. How is the peace of the youth's surrounding shattered? He had seen death before. Why did this have such a dramatic effect upon him?

Chapter 8
1. What contrasting images are seen at the beginning of this chapter? In what way is this effective for both the reader and the youth?
2. Define irony? What irony does the youth see in his own actions at the beginning of this chapter?
3. The colours blue and gray are recurrent throughout this novel. To what do they literally, and sometimes figuratively, refer. Consider the history of this story carefully before selecting your answer. What is the difference between literal and figurative?
4. What dilemma faces the youth at the end of this chapter?

Chapter 9
1. From what does this novel gain its chosen title?
2. What does juxtaposition mean? What juxtaposing thoughts does the youth have about wounded persons?
3. Why do you think Crane chose to identify his characters by name only during dialogue, and in third person with descriptors such as 'tall', ' loud', and 'tattered'?
4. What double meaning could there be in the line (p.55), "...they perceived that his face wore an expression telling that he had at last found the place for which he had struggled"?
5. Explain 'philippic', found on p.57. You must not just copy a meaning for the word; rather, research to determine other words which could take its place for meaning. Why is this word appropriate for the changing mood of the youth? What has caused this mood to change thus?

Chapter 10
1. Describe the character of the 'tattered' soldier, based on the dialogue he has in this chapter? Why is dialogue an effective style device for Crane to use, based on the narrative he is relating?
2. What can the reader tell about the personality of the youth, based on this chapter?
Support your observations with examples from the chapter.
3. Explain the statement on p.60: "The simple questions of the tattered man had been knife thrusts to him."

Chapter 11
1. Define pathos. Find the use of this term in this chapter and explain it.
2. This story is not one of man vs man conflict, although the American Civil War was just that. What is the dominant form of conflict in this story? Find two examples from this chapter to support your choice.
3. What did the youth hope would happen, to save him from his own fear of surviving with his cowardice?
4. What state of mind is Fleming in by the end of this chapter? What is causing this?

Chapter 12
1. In what terms does the youth express the horror he is feeling about battle? Give 4 examples of words and phrases which reflect this horror.
2. Throughout this story, Crane has attempted to appeal the senses of the reader. Give 3 examples, of sight - sound - smell - which reflect this sensory style. Why is this an important element of Crane's style, based on the fact that: he is depicting a real war;
and, he did not himself participate in that war.
3. The youth has yet another flashback. Of what? And why?
4. What is the importance of the last paragraph of this chapter?

Chapter 13
1.The youth was wounded in chapter 12. How?
What irony is involved with this wound in this chapter?
2. What role does the 'loud' soldier play with regard to the youth?
3. As with the 'tattered' soldier, what do learn about the 'loud' soldier based on the dialogue between him and the youth? What do we learn about the youth in this case?

Chapter 14
1. Based on the early conversation between the youth and the loud soldier, what irony does there seem to be in the description 'loud' continuing to be applied to the second young soldier?
2. How has the 'loud' soldier changed? What has caused this changed?
3. Explain the chapter ending.

Chapter 15
1. Explain the following, found on p.84: "The latter (the youth) felt immensely superior to his friend, but he inclined to condescension. He adopted toward him an air of patronizing good humor...His self-pride was now entirely restored."
What is the message being delivered by Crane through the youth, and the narrative?
2. The sentence structure and vocabulary throughout this novel will, in many cases, be new to readers. Describe, with reference only to this chapter, how sentence structure varies differently from that which a more modern audience might be used to, and give examples of 5 words or phrases with contextual meaning, again only from this chapter.
What is the overall effect of the structure and the vocabulary on: the reading of the book; the appropriateness to the storyline; the drama of the story?

Chapter 16
1. What metaphor is used to begin this chapter?
2. Describe, in your own words, the battle scene the youth is observing.
3. How does the youth's guilty conscience again catch up with him?
4. What does the general morale of the troops tell you about the tone of this war?
5. Explain the final simile of this chapter.

Chapter 17
1. How is animal imagery used effectively in this chapter? Identify no less than two examples.
2. Is this chapter the climax of this story? If so, why? If not, why not, and where would the climax be?
3. Historically, what is the copyright date of this story? In terms of the contents of this chapter, why is the date an important factor to remember when reading?

Chapter 18
1. What is implied by having a 'geographical illusion'(p.97)?
2. In what way does the tone/mood of this chapter alter from chapter 17? Give two examples to reflect this change.
3. Explain the last paragraph of this chapter.

Chapter 19
1. Compare and contrast the sense of battle within this chapter to that found in chapter 16.
Why is there a difference here?
2. Is this chapter the climax of this story? If so, why? If not, why not, and where would the climax be? (Compare and contrast with your answer in chapter 17.)

Chapter 20
1. What irony of shame does the youth experience in this chapter? Does he recognize this irony? Why or why not?
2. What is the mood of this chapter? Give 4 examples of where this is clearly reflected in the words/phrases/descriptions of the author.
3. What are your impressions of the youth as he observes/participates? What led to these impressions?

Chapter 21
1. What perception of time and place does the youth experience following the battle, and return to camp? What does this tell you of war?
2. What are your impressions of the youth in this chapter? Do these impressions compare/contrast to your previous impressions? Explain.
3. What lessons of war are learned?

Chapter 22
1. Which images of war are poignant in this chapter? (This is not the same as the lessons learned in chapter 21.) Refer to specific examples, with page numbers.
2. How does the tone of this chapter contrast to the previous?

Chapter 23
1. Explain the following:(p.122)
"There was new and unexpected force in the movement of the regiment. A knowledge of its faded and jaded condition made the charge appear
like a paroxysm, a display of the strength that comes before a final feebleness."
2. P.124 How is possible for a person to center "the gaze of his soul"? What do these carefully selected words tell you about the youth and the situation?
3. How is colour an important device in this chapter?

Chapter 24
1.Summarize the last chapter with:
a) your final impressions of this youth
b) your impressions of the war he was involved in
c) your closing remarks regarding Stephen Crane's reasons for writing a story about a war he never fought, and the success of his story

Writing Activity: The Red Badge of Courage

Based on the information you have collected for "Exploring: the Civil War", you will now develop a one paragraph outline.

Step 1
Select one of the following introductory sentences, upon which to base your paragraph.

A) The Civil War was a bloody, yet necessary, political war.

B) Walt Whitman and Stephen Crane both accurately captured the images of the Civil War.
C) To this day the Civil War resembles the current civil wars in our world.

Step 2
Select two facts from your research which clearly prove the statement you have chosen.

Step 3
Select two examples from your research which clearly prove each of the two facts you have selected.

Step 4 : development
Begin your paragraph in rough, by copying out your choice from step 1.
Follow this with the first of your chosen facts.
Follow this with the two examples which will support this fact.
Follow this with the second of your chosen facts.
Follow this with the two examples which will support this fact.

Step 5
By re-reading your introductory sentence, be sure you have actually discussed it, and not another topic.
Complete this paragraph by developing a concluding sentence. Re-use the introductory sentence by rewording it, and including (simplified) the two facts you have stated.

Step 6 : editing
This rough draft will now be peer edited by two members of the class. Follow directions when this stage is reached, as you will be editing for someone else.
Writing Activity Preparation Outline

As a means of tracking yourself and your plans for writing, respond to each of the following. Then follow this outline as your plan for drafting your paragraph.
Item Information
Step 1
Introductory sentence To this day the Civil War resembles the current civil wars in our world.

Step 2
Fact #1 a civil war is a struggle between members of the same community

Step 2
Fact #2 both then and now the casualties have been in the thousands, if not more - whole communities wiped out

Step 3
Example #1 Ireland - religious fighting on the streets of towns
Rwanda, Africa - HuuTuus and Tuutsis

Step 3
Example #2 in Ireland - thousands have been killed in the past 25 years
in Rwanda - 1,000,000 Huutuus were killed
Check off each of the following as they are completed:
Step 4 -developed paragraph in rough using steps 1-3

Step 5 -re-read paragraph for relevance of information
- add concluding sentence to paragraph

Step 6 - peer editing #1 (with initials)
- peer editing #2 (with initials)

Step 7 - rewrite edited paragraph

Step 8 - adult editing (with initials)

Step 9 - final draft in good

Step 10 - final proofediting (with initials)

To this day the Civil War resembles the current civil wars in our world.
a civil war is a struggle between members of the same community
both then and now the casualties have been in the thousands, if not more - whole communities wiped out
Ireland - religious fighting on the streets of towns
Rwanda, Africa - HuuTuus and Tuutsis
in Ireland - thousands have been killed in the past 25 years
in Rwanda - 1,000,000 Huutuus were killed

Example of finished product:
To this day the Civil War resembles the current civil wars in our world. No matter when in time a civil war occurs, it is defined as a struggle
between members of the same community. This is the case in Ireland,where two religious groups within the same communities have been fighting on the streets of towns over religion. As well, in Rwanda, Africa,HuuTuus and Tuutsis fought only three years ago. They were rival tribes living within the same country. Both then and now, the casualties from this fighting has been in the thousands, if not more. Whole communities have
been wiped out. In Ireland, thousands have been killed in the past 25 years,and in Rwanda, 1,000,000 Huutuus were killed in one year alone. Therefore,regardless of time, the similarities between the American Civil War and the civil wars of today are quite obvious.

The Red Badge of Courage

Name:_____________________Date:___________________Score: /72

Part 1 Chapters 1-10
True or False (20 marks)
1. Johnnies referred to members of the northern army. T F
2. The youth was Henry Fallow. T F
3. The youth was forced to join the army. T F
4. The youth sees war as a heroic adventure. T F
5. Henry's father tells him to do whatever was right. T F
6. The blue demonstration referred to civilians from the north, who disagreed with the idea of war. T F
7. The youth, Henry, tells this story. T F
8. Henry worried constantly about the possibility of running away. T F
9. Battle sleep referred to a break in the fighting. T F
10. War atmosphere referred to the mood felt while on the battlefield. T F
11. Henry was more afraid of dying running away than he was of facing it. T F
12. The soldiers are frightened, and do not want the first battle to ever come. T F
13.Henry finds himself running from the first battle he must face. T F
14. Henry witnesses the dreadful sight of the tattered soldier's death. T F
15. The youth pities the officers in charge, because the soldiers are so hard on them. T F
16.The youth finds sanctuary in nature. T F
17. The red badge of courage refers to the wounds a soldier would receive. T F
18. The greatest dilemma facing the youth is his own conscience . T F
19. Henry is wounded in battle, and must be tended to. T F
20. The men find out that Henry was a coward, and tease him with their constant comments and questions. T F

Part 2 Chapters 11-24 True or False (12 marks)
1. This story is a man versus self conflict. T F
2. Henry is seriously wounded returning from battle. T F
3. The youth's flashbacks of home comfort him. T F
4. The loud soldier dies an agonizing death. T F
5. The soldiers tease Henry and reject him because of his cowardice. T F
6. Metaphors are often used to compare the war with various animals. T F
7. The tattered soldier nursed the youth through his injury. T F
8. The regiment lost nearly half its men during one of the battles. T F
9. Henry often forgets his cowardice, replacing it with great thoughts of himself. T F
10. The sarcastic soldier sparks the youth's guilty conscience again. T F
11. The youth is described as a war devil for his actions in battle. T F
12. Henry's job was to carry the flag into battle. T F

Part 3 Short Answers (entire text) (40 marks)

Answer on separate paper. Answer with complete sentences. Marks will be deducted for incomplete sentences. Answers are worth either 1 or 2 marks. (As marked)

1. Why did the soldiers get so annoyed with being in the army? (2 marks)

2. How had Henry always thought of war? ( 1 mark)

3. What proof is there that Henry is part of the northern army? (1 mark)

4. Identify two other soldiers the youth refers to, not including the tattered soldier.(1 mark)

5. During what time period does this story take place? How do we know this? (2 marks)

6. Briefly describe what a battle is like, once one starts. (2 marks)

7.What is a private? (1 mark)

8. Why does coming upon the corpse upset the youth so much?(2 marks)

9. Why is Henry so critical of his comrades, when he returns to the regiment?(2 marks)

10. Explain the meaning of the following lines: (2 marks)
"The simple questions of the tattered man had been knife. thrusts to him. They had asserted a society that probes pitilessly at secrets until all is apparent."

11. Explain what the following line tells you about Henry:
"...furthermore, how could they kill him who was the chosen of gods and doomed to greatness?". (2 marks)

12. What was Henry keeping for the soldier named Wilson?(1 mark)

13. How does Henry continue to react to his fellow soldiers, once he returns to the regiment?
(2 marks)

14. Explain the following statements, said and reflected upon by the youth.
'' "Well, don't we fight like the devil? Don't we do all that we can?"demanded the youth loudly.
He was secretly dumbfounded at this sentiment when it came from his lips.' (2 marks)

15. What does a 'metallic hound' refer to?(1 mark)

16. Why are the soldiers critical of the leadership they are receiving?(2 marks)

17. What was the difference between how an officer and a soldier traveled through and between battles?(2 marks)

18. What discovery does the youth make about the distances across which battles are fought and traveled to? (1 mark)

19. What is a battle flag?(1 mark)

20. What made retrieving a battle flag during battle so important? (2 marks)

21. About whom was the term 'mule drivers' used? (1 mark)

22. What manages to lift the spirits and hopes of the soldiers? (2 marks)

23. What happens when the young men return from their turn in battle? (2 marks)

24. Rewrite the following dialogue in contemporary (current) English. (**3 marks)
He kep' th' flag 'way t' th' front. I saw 'im. He's a good un', ses the colonel.
'You bet', ses th' lieutenant, 'he an' a fellar named Wilson was at th' head 'a th' charge, an' howlin' like Indians all th' time,' he ses.

Review The Red Badge of Courage

Answer the following as a means of study for the unit test. Remember, the unit test will include the terms in the style notes.

1. What is the difference between static and dynamic?
2. What is the difference between round and flat?
3. What is the difference between first person narration and omniscient narration?
4. Can a character be both round and dynamic? Why?
5. What is the difference between major, minor and background characters?
6. What must a character be closer to, to be more important?
7. What is a theme? Give an example from The Red Badge of Courage.
8. What is the difference between an explicit theme and an implicit theme.
9. What is an integral setting? Give an example from The Red Badge of Courage.
10. What is a backdrop setting? Give an example from The Red Badge of Courage.
11. What makes backdrop and background different from each other?
How are they the same?
12. Why did the youth run away?
Why didn't he run from the first battle?
13. Why did the author not refer to the other soldiers by their given names all the time?
14. Why is Henry the protagonist?
Why is Henry a round, dynamic character?
15. Why does Henry become suspicious of everyone?
16. What is a metaphor?
17. What is a simile?
18. What is personification?
19. How and why were the devices listed in #'s 16,17 and 18 used so frequently?
20. What is this story intended to teach?
21. In what manner were the senses appealed to throughout this story? Why did Crane do this?
22. Why is the detail and accuracy of Crane's story so remarkable?
23. What criticisms did the soldiers direct at their commanders?
24. How did the youth try to cope with his 'cowardice'?
25. What did Wilson and Fleming do that rallied their troops and earned them much praise? Why was this in fact an important feat?
26. What criticisms did the soldiers direct at their early enlistment in the army?
27. What is atmosphere? How did the atmosphere at the beginning of the story contrast with the atmosphere after Henry's enlistment?
28. In what manner does Crane distinguish the troops of the north from those of the south?
29. What was 'sanctuary', and why was important to Henry?

Story Review







(dilemmas leading to climax)







(who, type)

(sorry, the charts did not copy for this test)
ENG 2A1 UNIT TEST The Red Badge of Courage

Name:____________________ Date:___________________ Mark: /50
Read through this test once before beginning. Work on any section first, but clearly number your work as you go. Be sure to answer all four (4) sections.
Read all instructions carefully. Note the mark value for sections and individual questions.
Reread your work for errors and completeness before handing in.

Section 1 Matching columns (17 marks)
Match the information given in column B with the most appropriate word in column A. There are only 17 appropriate matches.
Column A Column B
1. Courage _____ A. the feeling created, in this novel through appeal to the senses
2. Cowardice_____ B. a soldier which arouses the guilt in Henry
3. Atmosphere____ C. nursemaid to the youth when he is injured
4. Stereotype_____ D. what the youth felt towards his comrades
5. Integral ____ E. an nonessential setting
6. Sanctuary_____ F. a hallucination, an imagined idea/sight
7. Protagonist_____ G. showing the differences in character, setting...
8. Homeric_____ H. type of setting essential to developing a storyline
9. Suspicion____ I. device commonly used in Crane's style, to show comparison
10. Sarcastic_____ J. that which causes Henry so much shame
11. Catalyst_____ K. what the 'red badge' was to be a sign of
12. Implicit_____ L. the highest point of action
13. Contrast_____ M. Henry, our main character, who is fully developed, is this
14. Loud _____ N. that which creates a reaction, such as a character foil
15. Metaphor_____ O. to show depth in a fully developed character
16. Climax_____ P. a place of escape for Henry
17. Dimensional_____ Q. when a main idea is less than obvious
18. Illusion_____ R. the image the youth had of war

Section 2 Short answers (10 marks)
Choose 5 of the following questions and answer in sentence format. Each answer is worth 2 marks. Be complete, and do not answer only with examples. Answer on separate paper.

1. Define simile and personification.

2. Identify one explicit theme from this story, and support your choice with one well-justified reason.

3. Where is the climax of this novel? Why do you choose this moment?

4. What are the major differences between major and secondary characters?

5. The atmosphere in this story is constantly changing. Why?

6. The soldiers are constantly critical of their leaders. With which leader does the youth finally form a bond, and why does this happen?

7.Why are backdrop and background different? How are they the same?

8. Define irony. Give one example of where it occurs.

Section 3 Longer answers (15 marks)
Choose 3 of the following questions/statements and answer in sentence. Each answer is worth 5 marks. Support ideas with at least 1 example per answer. Answer on separate paper.

1. Henry fought a personal conflict, versus himself. Why?

2. What is the difference between a character which is round and dynamic, and one which is flat and static? Include an example of each type of character, from Red Badge of Courage?

3. What is a foil? Who acts as a foil in this novel? For whom? Prove your choice.

4. What is Stephen Crane's message about war, and its impact on young men?

5. Explain the choice of The Red Badge of Courage as the title of this novel. Support your idea(s) with references from the text.

Section 4 Essay answer (8 marks)
Choose 1 of the following questions/statements and answer in sentence, paragraph format. Answer on separate paper. Your answer will be evaluated as follows:
An introductory sentence - 1 mark
Body - ideas clearly stated - 4 marks
- examples clearly supportive - 2 marks
Concluding sentence - 1 mark
Overall style will count as deductions where sentences/spelling affect quality and clarity of answer. (3 errors = 1 mark)

1. Outline the character development of Henry Fleming, the youth. (a written character sketch)

2. Choose two of following to discuss:
a) your final impressions of this youth
b) the war he was involved in.
c) Stephen Crane's reasons for writing a story about a war he never fought
d) the success of this story for a 1990's reader

3. Contrast Henry to any one other character in this story, based on personality, opinions,
actions. Be sure to support comparisons with evidence.