Managing Employee Motivation and Performance
Process perspectives on motivation deal with how motivation occurs. Expectancy theory suggests that people are motivated to perform if they believe that their effort will result in high performance, that this performance will lead to rewards, and that the positive aspects of the outcomes outweigh the negative aspects. Equity theory is based on the premise that people are motivated to achieve and maintain social equity. Attribution theory is a new process theory.
The reinforcement perspective focuses on how motivation is maintained. Its basic assumption is that behavior that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated, whereas behavior resulting in negative consequences is less likely to be repeated. Reinforcement contingencies can be arranged in the form of positive reinforcement, avoidance, punishment, and extinction, and they can be provided on fixed-interval, variable-interval, fixed-ratio, or variable-ratio schedules.
Two newly emerging approaches to employee motivation are goal-setting theory and the Japanese approach. Managers often adopt behavior modification, modified workweeks, work redesign, and participation programs to enhance motivation.
Organizational reward systems are the primary mechanisms managers have for managing motivation. Properly designed systems can improve attitudes, motivation, and behaviors.
Effective reward systems must provide sufficient rewards on an equitable basis at the individual level. Contemporary reward systems include merit systems and various kinds of incentive systems.
Motivation The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways
Importance of Employee Motivation
Three things generally determine individual performance:
Motivation: the desire to do the job.
Ability: the capability to do the job
The work environment: the tools, materials, and information needed to do the job.
Historical Perspectives on motivation:
Motivation theory has evolved through three different eras:
The traditional approach,
The human relations approach, and
The human resource approach.
Content perspectives Approaches to motivation that try to answer the question "what factor or factors motivate people?"
THE NEED HIERACHY APPPROACH
1. Mallow's hierarchy of needs Suggests that people must satisfy five groups of needs in order--physiological, security, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization
Physiological needs: things like food, sex, and air that represent basic issues of survival and biological function.
Satisfied by: wages, the work environment itself, which provides restrooms, comfortable temperatures, etc.
Security needs: for a secure physical and emotional environment: free from worry about money and job security, no layoffs, if illness no loose job. Etc.
Belongingness needs: relate to social processes. The need for love and affection. The need to be accepted by one peer.
Esteem needs: actually comprise two different set of needs: the need for a positive self-image and self-respect and the need for recognition and respect from others.
Self-actualization needs: realizing one's potential for continued growth and individual development.
2. ERG theory of motivation Suggests that people's needs are grouped into three possibly overlapping categories--existence, relatedness, and growth
3. Two-factor theory of motivation Suggests that people's satisfaction and dissatisfaction are influenced by two independent sets of factors--motivation factors and hygiene factors
INDIVIDUAL Human Needs
1. Need for achievement The desire to accomplish a goal or task more effectively than in the past
2. Need for affiliation The desire for human companionship and acceptance
3. Need for power The desire to be influential in a group and to control one's environment
Process Perspectives On Motivation:
Process perspectives Approaches to motivation that focus on why people choose certain behavioral options to fulfill their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained these goals
1. Expectancy theory Suggests that motivation depends on two things--how much we want something and how likely we think we are to get it
Effort-to-performance expectancy The individual's perception of the probability that his or her effort will lead to high performance
Performance-to-outcome expectancy The individual's perception that her or his performance will lead to a specific outcome
Outcomes Consequences of behaviors in an organizational setting, usually rewards
Valence An index of how much an individual desires a particular outcome; it is the attractiveness of the outcome to the individual
2. Equity theory Suggests that people are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they receive for performance
Reinforcement perspective Approach to motivation that explains the role of rewards as they cause behavior to change or remain the same over time
KINDS Of Reinforcement in Organization
Positive reinforcement A method of strengthening behavior with rewards or positive outcomes after a desired behavior is performed
Avoidance Used to strengthen behavior by avoiding unpleasant consequences, which would result if the behavior were not performed
Punishment Used to weaken undesired behaviors by using negative outcomes or unpleasant consequences when the behavior is performed
Extinction Used to weaken undesired behaviors by simply ignoring or not reinforcing that behavior
PROVIDING REINFORCEMENT IN ORGANIZATIONS:
Fixed-interval schedules Provide reinforcement at fixed intervals of time, such as regular weekly paychecks
Variable-interval schedules Provide reinforcement at varying intervals of time, such as occasional visits by the supervisor
Fixed-ratio schedules Provide reinforcement after a fixed number of behaviors regardless of the time interval involved, such as a bonus for every fifth sale
Variable-ratio schedules Provide reinforcement after varying numbers of behaviors are performed, such as the use of complements by a supervisor on an irregular basis
Behavior modification, or OB Mod Method for applying the basic elements of reinforcement theory in an organizational setting
Empowerment The process of enabling workers to set their own work goals, make decisions, and solve problems within their sphere of responsibility and authority
Participation The process of giving employees a voice in making decisions about their own work
Compressed work schedule Working a full forty-hour week in fewer than the traditional five days
Flexible work schedules, or flextime Allowing employees to select, within broad parameters, the hours they work
Job sharing When two part-time employees share one full-time job.
Telecommuting Allowing employees to spend part of their time working off-site, usually at home
Reward systems The formal and informal mechanisms by which employee performance is defined, evaluated, and rewarded
Merit system a reward system whereby people get different pay rises at the end of the year depending on their overall job performance
Incentive system A reward system whereby people get different pay amounts at each pay period in proportion to what they do
Managing Leadership and Influence Processes
As a process, leadership is the use of no coercive influence to shape the groups or organization's goals, motivate behavior toward the achievement of those goals, and help define group or organization culture. As a property, leadership is the set of characteristics attributed to those who are perceived to be leaders. Leadership and management are often related but are also different. Managers and leaders use legitimate, reward, coercive, referent, and expert power.
The trait approach to leadership assumed that some basic trait or set of traits differentiated leaders from nonreaders. The leadership-behavior approach to leadership assumed that the behavior of effective leaders was somehow different from the behavior of nonreaders. Research at the University of Michigan and Ohio State identified two basic forms of leadership behavior-one concentrating on work and performance and the other concentrating on employee welfare and support. The Managerial Grid attempts to train managers to exhibit high levels of both forms of behavior.
Situational approaches to leadership recognize that appropriate forms of leadership behavior are not universally applicable and attempt to specify situations in which various behaviors are appropriate. The LPC theory suggests that a leader's behaviors should be either task-oriented or relationship-oriented depending on the favorableness of the situation. The path-goal theory suggests that directive, supportive, participative, or achievement-oriented leader behaviors may be appropriate, depending on the personal characteristics of subordinates and the environment. Vroom's decision tree approach maintains that leaders should vary the extent to which they allow subordinates to participate in making decisions as a function of problem attributes. The leader-member exchange model focuses on individual relationships between leaders and followers and in-group versus out-group considerations.
Related leadership perspectives are the concept of substitutes for leadership, charismatic leadership, and the role of transformational leadership in organizations.
Political behavior is another influence process frequently used in organizations. Impression management, one especially important form of political behavior, is a direct and intentional effort by someone to enhance his or her image in the eyes of others. Managers can take steps to limit the effects of political behavior.
Leadership As a process, the use of no coercive influence to shape the group's or organization's goals, motivate behavior toward the achievement of those goals, and help define group or organization culture; as a property, the set of characteristics attributed to individuals who are perceived to be leaders
Leaders People who can influence the behaviors of others without having to rely on force; those accepted by others as leaders
Power The ability to affect the behavior of others
Legitimate power Power granted through the organizational hierarchy; it is the power defined by the organization that is to be accorded people occupying particular positions
Reward power The power to give or withhold rewards, such as salary increases, bonuses, promotions, praise, recognition, and interesting job assignments
Coercive power The power to force compliance by means of psychological, emotional, or physical threat
Referent power The personal power that accrues to someone based on identification, imitation, loyalty, or charisma
Expert power The personal power that accrues to someone based on the information or expertise that they possess
Using Power: how they use power?
Job-centered leader behavior The behavior of leaders who pay close attention to the job and work procedures involved with that job
Employee-centered leader behavior The behavior of leaders who develop cohesive work groups and ensure employee satisfaction
Initiating-structure behavior The behavior of leaders who define the leader-subordinate role so that everyone knows what is expected, establishing formal lines of communication, and determine how tasks will be performed
Consideration behavior The behavior of leaders who concern for subordinates and attempt to establish a warm, friendly, and supportive climate
Concern for people That part of the Managerial Grid that deals with the human aspects of leader behavior
Concern for production That part of the Managerial Grid that deals with the job and task aspects of leader behavior
LPC theory A theory of leadership that suggests that the appropriate style of leadership varies with situational favorableness
Least preferred co-worker (LPC) The measuring scale that asks leaders to describe the person with whom he or she is able to work least well
Path-goal theory A theory of leadership suggesting that the primary functions of a leader are to make valued or desired rewards available in the workplace and to clarify for the subordinate the kinds of behavior that will lead to those rewards
Vroom's decision tree approach Predicts what kinds of situations call for what degrees of group participation
Leader-member exchange (lmx) approach Stresses that leaders have different kinds of relationships with different subordinates
Substitutes for leadership A concept that identifies situations in which leader behaviors are neutralized or replaced by characteristics of subordinates, the task, and the organization
Charismatic leadership Assumes that charisma is an individual characteristic of the leader
Charisma A form of interpersonal attraction that inspires support and acceptance
Transformational leadership Leadership that goes beyond ordinary expectations by transmitting a sense of mission, stimulating learning experiences, and inspiring new ways of thinking
Political behavior The activities carried out for the specific purpose of acquiring, developing, and using power and other resources to obtain one's preferred outcomes
Impression management A direct and intentional effort by someone to enhance his or her image in the eyes of others
Distinctions Between Management and Leadership
Leadership Activity Management
Establishing direction and vision for the organization
Creating an agenda Planning and budgeting, allocating resources
Aligning people through communications and actions that provide direction
Developing a human network for achieving the agenda
Organizing and staffing, structuring and monitoring implementation
Motivating and inspiring by satisfying needs
Controlling and problem solving
Produces useful change and new approaches to challenges
Produces predictability and order and attains results