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Grade: Middle

#2894. A Famous Speech

Reading/Writing, level: Middle
Posted Sat Jul 12 11:17:10 PDT 2003 by Ambreen Asif Qureshi (

Commecs EducationalTrust, Karachi, Pakistan
Materials Required: Charts, Flash cards and Pictures:
Activity Time: 2 or 3 Periods of 30 Min. each
Concepts Taught: "A Famous Speech "

TIME: 2 or 3 Periods of 30 Min. each UNIT TOPIC: "A Famous Speech "
INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL : To teach direct and indirect narration, use of punctuations in narration, change of pronouns and tenses, change of adverbial phrases
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE : By the end of the lesson, the student will be able to: Know about the rules of direct / indirect narration Identify and Use proper punctuation marks in a given write-up Change the narration according to the rules Write a dialogue on a topic of his / her liking
RATIONALE (brief justification -- why you feel the students need to learn this topic) In our daily life we have to communicate with others, sometimes we have to report or record incidents. A student is required to use language in different written and oral forms. Therefore he should know about the basic difference between the reported and reporting speech.
LESSON CONTENT (what is to be taught)
INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES 1st Period:Introduction and Revision: The teacher will read the lesson and the students will be asked to note the verbs. Then the teacher will be asked the form of the verbs and once again the students will read the summary. The teacher will ask them to tell the class about what Churchill said in his famous speech. The students may respond by repeating the words as they appeared in Churchill's speech: the direct form. The teacher will pin point this thing and ask some students will be asked to read the actual written words. Now students will tell the difference between the actual words and the words used in summary and the introduction of direct and indirect narration will be given. Teacher will call two students in front of class. One student will be asked to say any sentence about himself and the other will be asked to report his sentence in his own words.Lesson Sequence:a. Focusing event (something to get the students' attention) Before starting the lesson, the teacher will motivate the students by asking them few questions like:1. Have they heard the Prime Minister's speech last night?2. What did their mother say to them when they were coming to school?b. Teaching procedures The teacher will then tell the students that they will be learning about 'Direct and Indirect Speech'. She will write the topic on the board and ask them to open the book at pg no. 58. Drawing three columns on the board with heading Direct Speech, Indirect Speech, Wrong Speech, the teacher will write a sentence from the lesson in column 1: Direct Speech. Winston Churchill said, "We shall fight on the beaches" The teacher will ask a student from the class "What did Winston Churchill say?" The student may be replied: Winston Churchill said we shall fight on the beaches. The teacher will write his reply on the board, in the last column. Now teacher will explain that in direct speech .1. We write the actual sentence in inverted commas. This is direct speech.2. When we have to report what another person has said, we do not use the same words. Instead we make certain changes in his speech to report. That is why it is called reported speech or indirect speech. 3. In indirect speech we don't use inverted commas. The teacher will explain by writing the following sentences in their columns. E.g. The student says, "I am reading" (direct speech) The student says that he is reading. (indirect speech) The teacher will ask the students to note the changes made while changing the above direct speech into indirect speech. Such as1. We have used the conjunction "that" before the indirect statement.2. The pronoun "I" has been changed to "he".Some students will be asked to come in front of the class in pairs. One will say something about himself like what was he doing before calling. The other one will repeat it in indirect speech and the rest of the class has to check the changes he makes. Then changes of 2nd and 3rd person pronouns will be explained. Five sentences in direct speech will be given to the students change into indirect speech. 2nd Period: RevisionStudents will be asked to tell the difference between direct and indirect speech. The teacher will write any two sentences from given home task, and then call a student to the board to change it while the rest of the students will call out their answers. If they need any further assistance it will be explained again. Lesson Sequence Then the teacher will write a sentence again from the lesson. 1. Churchill said , " Very nice he even got my teeth" Tense of the sentence will be asked. After students reply the teacher will write another sentence.2. Many people say, "It was the turning point of the war." Now the teacher will again ask the tense of the sentence and explain that in sentence # 1, the reporting speech and the reported speech both are in the same (past) tense. But in sentence # 2. the reporting speech is in present and the reported speech is in past tense. So if the reporting speech is in present, the tense of the sentence will not be changed in indirect speech. But if the reporting speech is in past as in sentence # 1, then the following changes will occur:a. Simple present becomes simple past.He said , "I want a cup of tea" (direct)He said that he wanted a cup of tea (indirect)b. Pesent continuous becomes Past continuous.Asma said, "The teacher is teaching grammar." (direct)Asma said that the teacher was teaching grammar.c. Present perfect becomes Past perfect.The student said, " I have completed my work" (direct)The student that he had completed his work (indirect)d. The shall of the future tense is changed into should.The will of the future tense is change into would or should.e. The simple past in the direct becomes the past perfect in the indirect. He said, "The teacher taught direct speech (direct)He said that the teacher had taught direct speech (indirect)Wrap UpTeacher will say a sentence about a student in direct speech. That student will be asked to change it in indirect. In random order this activity will be carried on. Then a few sentences in different tenses will be given with past reporting speech and the students have to change their tenses accordingly.3rd PeriodRevisionChanges in reported speech will be asked according to the tenses with examples. Students will write the example and will explain how it will be done. The teacher will correct where needed. Lesson SequenceThe teacher will ask the students what they have learnt the previous day and what were they doing at this time. After this she will ask a student what was he/she was doing, when the bell rang and what is he/she doing now. After the student's response the teacher will explain that adverbs of time and places are also changed in indirect speech, if the reported speech is in past. Taking the example of the student's reply that "When the bell rang, I was writing" "I am listening to the teacher now" In the above sentence "when and now" indicate time adverbs likewise here and there are the examples of place adverbs. While changing direct speech (with past reporting speech) into direct speech, words expressing newness in time or place are changed into words expressing distance. And the following changes will be written on the BB : Now becomes then Today becomes that day Here becomes there Tomorrow becomes the next day Ago becomes before Yesterday becomes the day before Thus becomes so Last night becomes the night beforeAfter writing the expressions, the students will be asked to separate time and place adverbial phrases in the exercise in their textbooks. Similarly this and these will be changed to that and those when the thing pointed out is near at the time of the reporting speech. The teacher will ask the students sitting on the same desks to ask each other at least 5 questions using question words what and where, and then write each other's responses, first in direct speech and then change it into indirect speech. 10 minutes will be allocated to this activity.Wrap UpThe teacher will go around the desks and check students doing the above task, and will assist where needed.c. Formative check (progress checks throughout the lesson) Throughout the lesson, the teacher will be asking guided questions. Textbook exercises will be done. Some homework tasks will be given..Teacher will assess their tenses, rules of narration, and the dialogue written by them.d. Student Participation (how you will get the students to participate) Throughout the lesson, the students will be active, because the teacher will be asking question. They will respond to the teacher's questions, do group work, and write a dialogue.e. Closure (how you will end the lesson) The students will be asked to do the exercises in their class work copies, and some of exercise will be given for home work. They will be told about their next lesson.
EVALUATION PROCEDURES (how you will measure outcomes to determine if the material has been learned) Exercise A: from Language Practice will be done in class. Exercises B: Students will be divided into 5 groups. Each group will read the instruction on page 61, and write the answers. Afterwards, the answers will be written on the board.
MATERIALS AND AIDS :Charts, Flash cards and Pictures:Description Yes No
Was the condition of the road good?
Was the condition of the road bad?
Was the road paved?
Was the road narrow?
Was the road wide?
Were there any puddles on the road?
Were their any hawkers' stalls erected on the pavement / road?