Technology integrated Lesson Plans with ESOL Modifications
Content Area: (Social Science.) Grade: (10th.) Unit: Civil Rights in the 1950s Lesson Topic/Theme: (Brown versus Board of Education/1950s) Objectives: The purpose of this activity is to inform students about the Brown case and its implication on our society.
Content: Sunshine State Standards --SS A. 5.4 -7: Understand the development of federal civil rights and voting rights since the 1950s and the social and political implications of these events.
Materials: Brown versus Board of Education hand-out, Brown versus Board of Education cross-word puzzle and Cloze activity, U.S History textbook, The Story of Linda Brown, computer with publisher program and internet access, overhead, and overhead transparencies.
a. Anticipatory Set:
1. Begin class by writing the word "desegregation" on the board. Use the bottom-up approach to have students attempt to determine the meaning. Begin with "de" and continue from there.
2. Use the Total Response Approach to have students segregate for the remainder of the class to get a feel of what it must have been like to attend segregated schools. This will also lower the affective filter as students are in groups that are familiar to them.
b. During (Instructional Steps):
1. Have students read the Brown vs. Board of Education hand-out in pairs. Incorporating the idea of meaningful communication students will then discuss the case with the teacher. Each pair will take turns sharing with the class what they knew before the reading and what they learned. 2. Teacher provide comprehensible input to define unfamiliar vocabulary words and have the students copy the definition from the overhead.
Precedent- Something that sets a the standard or the model for others to follow Segregation- Separation based on race Desegregation- To make segregation based on race illegal Integration- To unify Inferior Lower Compelled- To feel forced to do something Deprives- To take something (such as the right to vote) away from someone Appealed- A request to have the court reconsider their decision Plaintiffs- The person that files a complaint in a court case Statute- A part of the law Unanimously- When everyone agree Doctrine- A set of guidelines Inherently- To be a certain way naturally
3. Break students up into three groups based on computer knowledge, creativity and English proficiency. One group will work on creating a brochure on the case, another group will create a bookmark with important information on the case and will create a puzzle using www.puzzlemaker.com with all the vocabulary words. The third group will create a 5minute skit of the actual case using information from the text, and www.boardvboard.org. They will work on these items on day 2 and have final products ready on the third day of the lesson. The final products will serve as the assessment.
c. Follow-up (Practice Steps):Students will use whole language approach to summarize the Brown case by creating items as if they were making an informational bookmark on the topic for people who do not know about the case.
Modifications for all LEP students:
1. Make sure that LEP students have a clear understanding of the word by asking them to tell the class and example they have seen of segregation (Acceptable examples include boys and girls segregating in the cafeteria) 2.Have LEP student think of a synonym to the word segregation 3. Have another LEP student divide the class during discussion of the word desegregation (as in to determine the categories, but not who is in the categories)
4. Have LEP student utilize his/her language dictionary for further clarification
5. Pair LEP student with a native speaker during reading activity and monitor reading
6. Have LEP students pick the group they would like to work in, this gives them the opportunity to work on this they may be interested in doing. 7.If possible, assign a student of the same native language to assist LEPs 8. Teacher serve as a resource for student by being accessible to answer questions Modifications for LEP Levels:
1. Pre-Production -- Focus on vocabulary, ask these students to initiated physical activity. The use of visual aids such as the overhead should be of great help to students at this level.
2. Early Production --Ask these students to create the categories for the segregation activity. Ask Y/N questions during the discussion to motivate students at this level to talk.
3. Speech Emergence -- Ask these students to attempt to define the words, focus on these students during the reading segment of the class. The word search should be very helpful for these students.
4. Intermediate Fluency -- Focus on the information placed on the activity board completed by these students as they have acquired new vocabulary and are able to use higher level thinking skills.
Brown v. Board of Education
In the early 1950's, racial segregation in public schools was the norm across America. Although all the schools in a given district were supposed to be equal, most black schools were far inferior to their white counterparts.
In Topeka, Kansas, a black third-grader named Linda Brown had to walk one mile through a railroad switchyard to get to her black elementary school, even though a white elementary school was only seven blocks away. Linda's father, Oliver Brown, tried to enroll her in the white elementary school, but the principal of the school refused. Brown went to McKinley Burnett, the head of Topeka's branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and asked for help. The NAACP was eager to assist the Browns, as it had long wanted to challenge segregation in public schools. With Brown's complaint, it had "the right plaintiff at the right time." Other black parents joined Brown, and, in 1951, the NAACP requested an injunction that would forbid the segregation of Topeka's public schools.
The U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas heard Brown's case from June 25-26, 1951. At the trial, the NAACP argued that segregated schools sent the message to black children that they were inferior to whites; therefore, the schools were inherently unequal.
The Board of Education's defense was that, because segregation in Topeka and elsewhere pervaded many other aspects of life, segregated schools simply prepared black children for the segregation they would face during adulthood. The board also argued that segregated schools were not necessarily harmful to black children; great African Americans such as Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, and George Washington Carver had overcome more than just segregated schools to achieve what they achieved.
On the other hand, the precedent of Plessy v. Ferguson allowed separate but equal school systems for blacks and whites, and no Supreme Court ruling had overturned Plessy yet. Because of the precedent of Plessy, the court felt "compelled" to rule in favor of the Board of Education.
Brown and the NAACP appealed to the Supreme Court on October 1, 1951 and their case was combined with other cases that challenged school segregation in South Carolina, Virginia, and Delaware. The Court had to make its decision based not on whether or not the authors of the Fourteenth Amendment had desegregated schools in mind when they wrote the amendment in 1868, but based on whether or not desegregated schools deprived black children of equal protection of the law when the case was decided, in 1954.
On May 17, 1954, Chief Justice Earl Warren read the decision of the unanimous Court: " We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."
The Supreme Court struck down the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy for public education, Therefore, the court ruled in favor of the plaintiffs, and required the desegregation of schools across America.
The Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision did not abolish segregation in other public areas, such as restaurants and restrooms, nor did it require desegregation of public schools by a specific time. It was a giant step towards complete desegregation of public schools. Even partial desegregation of these schools, however, was still very far away, as would soon become apparent.