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#3393. Conceptual Design: Architectural Models

other, level: Senior
Posted Sat May 17 12:46:13 PDT 2008 by Steen Stovall (Steen Stovall).
B. J. Skelton Career Center, Easley, SC 29640
Materials Required: See lesson plan
Activity Time: 6 class periods (2.5 hour block)
Concepts Taught: Conceptual design in architecture

LESSON OVERVIEW:

Lesson Plan Title:
Conceptual Design: Architectural Models - Primary Models - Creating a Concept Model

Lesson Summary:
Students will learn about creating an architectural primary model at the concept stage. Each student will design, draw, and build a primary concept model of a structure. Students will learn to explore a structure's abstract qualities such as materiality, site relationships, and interpretive themes. Students will learn to recognize the role of teamwork in architectural design and construction technology. Students will use the CAD program Autodesk Inventor to design their structure and incorporate their designs in a multimedia presentation.

Grade Level: 10-12

Student Objectives/Learning Goals:
Students will be able to:

*Demonstrate problem solving skills and surface development techniques.

*Illustrate isometric and multi-view drawings of the concept structure.

*Design and construct a scale model of the concept structure

*Describe how design is utilized in construction technology.

*Identify structures in the area that are examples of the four different types of construction technology.

*Identify local structures that use the six basic volumetric shapes in the design of a building or structure.

*List structures that represent examples of design criteria that may influence the design of a building or structure.

*Describe what effect the team approach has on the design of commercial buildings.

*Forecast/predict what houses and buildings might look like in 10, 20, 30 or 100 years.

Procedures:

Day One
1.Instructor will conduct pre-assessment activities (Attachment A).
2.Instructor will distribute the Architectural Primary Model - Concept Model and Presentation Rubric (Attachment B) to students. The instructor should discuss the criteria and expectations for the student's final project.
3.The instructor will introduce students to different buildings from around the country and world through existing textbooks, posters, photographs, images or research on the Internet.
4.Students will conduct and online search for information using the keywords: architectural style and selected terms from the Lesson Information Sheet (Attachment D).
5.Working in teams of two students will conduct an online search for information about a building that they wish to use as the design inspiration for the building they will model.
6.The teacher should serve as a facilitator and oversee and guide teams in their online research and choice of the building they will model.
7.Teams will identify and specifically list factors of style, convenience, efficiency and safety in their buildings and incorporate the factors into their designs. Team members produce several individual freehand pencil perspective sketches, and then, as a team, refine the sketches after discussing which design reflects the factors that interact best.
8.Instructor should encourage students to be creative and innovative in their designs.
9.Teams will conduct an online search for information using the keywords: scale model design, perspective sketches, sketching techniques, and architectural models.
10.Instructor will instruct each team to determine the sketch which best represents the interaction of the design factors, then assign one person on the team to begin the isometric CAD drawing utilizing the 3D CAD program, Autodesk Inventor, while the other team member begins the layout and construction of the model. 11.Instructor should, continually prompt the student teams, through all phases of the design process, to review and reflect on the interaction of factors that drive and influence design in construction technology.
12.Instructor should encourage student teams to incorporate any "new" factor that they may "discover" through the design process into the design of their buildings. Examples of these other interacting factors that help dictate form and function include things such as building codes and ordinances.

Day Two
13.Teams will begin a pencil layout of the model on white mat board using a scale of 1/8 inch = one foot. The mat board model acts as a "form study model", meaning it has little or no detail. Teams should omit window or door openings in their model.
14.Teams begin work on both the CAD drawings and construction of the models. CAD drawings should include windows, doors, exterior materials, walkways, roadways, and landscaping to convey the design factors.

Days Three and Four
15.Teams continue work on both the CAD drawing and construction of the models.
16.Teams begin work on their multimedia presentations. Students should conduct an online search for information on making presentations using the keywords: effective presentations, presentation techniques.

Day Five
17.Teams complete their CAD drawings and models, including all details and embellishments.
18.Teams complete their multimedia presentations.

Day Six
19.Teams make their presentations, conveying interacting factors that led to the final solution design of their structures. A PowerPoint presentation and/or Promethean board should be utilized.
20.Instructor will conduct post-assessment activities (Attachment A) and distribute the post-assessment test (Attachment E) to students. 21.The instructor should close the lesson unit by having the students share what they discovered and learned.

ATTACHMENT A:

Pre-Assessment:
Pose the following questions to the class:

*Define "design" as it relates to construction technology.
*Name the different types of buildings in a typically large or growing city.
*List the shapes of buildings in your community.
*Explain how a neighborhood influences the types of houses built there.
*Name two professionals who work on the same construction project and explain how they have to work together.
*Describe the newest building you have seen and consider how it differs from a similar existing one (consider form, function, and factors.)

Scoring Guidelines: Ask students to volunteer their responses and discuss their observations and thoughts. Review student responses to determine if they understand the differences in the buildings of a typical city and how the interaction of many factors influences design. Modify and supplement further discussion to clarify. Review the six basic volumetric shapes: prism, sphere, hemisphere, cube, cylinder and cone.

Post-Assessment:
Post assessment consists of three parts:

1.Small group performance
2.Small group performance and presentation
3.Individual paper and pencil assessment

Make sure each student is aware that the scale model concept structure and technical drawing includes designing and building a scale model, technical drawing and the short answer questions sheet.

Part One: Student teams design and build scale model concept structures of Las Vegas-type buildings to demonstrate how factors of style, convenience, efficiency and safety interact. Refer to Attachment B (Architectural Primary Model - Concept Model and Presentation Rubric).

Part Two: Student teams create several freehand, perspective pencil sketches, and then produce final isometric drawings on a CAD system using Inventor. The student team then presents its model and Inventor drawing and explains how the interaction of many factors influenced its final design solution. Refer to Attachment B.

Part Three: Students individual complete the short-answer test about driving factors and influences in construction technology. Refer to Attachment E (Post-Assessment Test)

Scoring Guideline: Refer to Attachment B (Architectural Primary Model - Concept Model and Presentation Rubric) for criteria that students should use when designing, building and drawing their concept structures and Attachment C (Post-Assessment Test Answer Key) for information to guide evaluation of student responses to the six questions.

ATTACHMENT B:

Architectural Primary Model - Concept Model and Presentation Rubric

Category:
Concept/Design (Elegant Simplicity)

Exceptional 4:Integrates design factors with exceptional creativity, detail and innovation

Proficient 3:Integrates design factors with above average creativity, detail and innovation
Fair 2:Integrates design factors with average creativity, detail and innovation

Very Poor/No Achievement1 or 0:Integrates design factors with below average creativity, detail and innovation

Category:
Perspective, Thumbnail Sketches (Ideation)

Exceptional 4:Provides six or more detailed, neat and labeled examples

Proficient 3:Provides four or five detailed, neat and labeled examples

Fair 2:Provides two or three detailed, neat and labeled examples

Very Poor/No Achievement 1 or 0:Provides one (or no) detailed, neat and labeled example

Category:
Isometric CAD Drawing

Exceptional 4:Neatly and successfully completes drawing using proper drafting techniques and details

Proficient 3: Neatly and successfully completes most of the drawing using proper drafting techniques and details

Fair 2: Neatly and successfully completes some of the drawing using proper drafting techniques and details

Very Poor/No Achievement 1 or 0:Fails to complete drawing or poorly presents drawing

Category:
Scale Model

Exceptional 4:Exhibits exceptional neatness and craftsmanship

Proficient 3:Exhibits some neatness and craftsmanship

Fair 2:Exhibits little neatness and craftsmanship
Very Poor/No Achievement 1 or 0: Exhibits no neatness nor craftsmanship

Category:
Presentation

Exceptional 4:Demonstrates outstanding communication, organization and clarity of design factors to audience

Proficient 3:Demonstrates above average communication, organization and clarity of design factors to audience

Fair 2:Demonstrates average communication, organization, clarity of design factors to audience

Very Poor/No Achievement 1 or 0:Demonstrates little or no communication, organization and clarity of design factors to audience

Category:
Teamwork

Exceptional 4:All group members demonstrate exceptional participation and contribution

Proficient 3:Some group members demonstrate effective participation and contribution

Fair 2:Few group members participate or contribute

Very Poor/No Achievemtn 1 or 0:No group members participate nor contribute significantly

ATTACHMENT C:

Post-Assessment Test Answer Key

1.How is design utilized in construction technology?
Ensures that the wants and needs of the client are satisfied; the structure is thought out and well-planned; specific criteria are met; many interacting factors influence the design of a structure.

2.Identify structures in the area that are examples of the four different types of construction technology.
Light (residential) construction, commercial construction, industrial construction, and civil construction

3.Identify local structures that use the six basic volumetric shapes in the design of a building or structure.
Prism, sphere, hemisphere, cube, cylinder, cone

4.List structures that represent examples of design criteria that may influence the design of a building or structure.
Surrounding buildings and environment; materials used; safety features incorporated; location; efficiency of design; site access; review boards; exterior style; topography

5.What effect does the team approach have on the design of commercial buildings?
More complex; more creative; more efficient; greater size; more organized

6.What will houses and buildings be or look like in 10, 20, 30 or 100 years?
Buildings or structures in space; more energy efficient; more destruction-proof (tornadoes, hurricanes, insect or rodent, terrorism); multifunctional; more organic and creative designs

ATTACHMENT D:

Lesson Information Sheet

Exterior Architectural Styles -- Light Construction

1.Georgian (formal balance; large entry on centerline; two-story columns; brick)
2.Saltbox (symmetrical; no porch; tapers to one story at rear)
3.Garrison (two-story; upper level extends past lower level)
4.Cape Cod (one level with a steep roof; dormers and shutters; symmetrical)
5.Federal (high covered entry porch or portico with columns; classical Greek and Roman style columns)
6.Greek Revival (large, boxlike; Greek proportions and ornamentation)
7.Southern Colonial (Georgian-like with porch extending length of house)
8.English (heavy timber and plaster; not symmetrical; diamond shaped glass)
9.Dutch (gambrel roof; two-story)
10.French (hip or mansard roof; two-story; rectangle shaped)
11.Spanish (one story; plaster; arches; flat or low-pitched tile roof; window grills)
12.Farmhouse (two-story; surrounded by a covered porch)
13.Ranch (one-level elongated floor plan covered by a low, sloping roof)
14.Victorian (ornate, irregular shapes; towers; wrought iron used)
15.Contemporary or Modern (clean lines with little or no trim; openness)

Driving Factors and Influences of Design in Architecture

1.Relationships - of other structures and to its environment
2.Technology - Positive: materials, safety, construction methods and techniquesNegative: traffic congestion, less quiet/serenity (sociological/environmental impact)

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe -- the architect of steel, believed that when technology reaches its full development in any culture, it immediately transcends into architecture. (Hepler, Donald and Paul Wallach. Architecture Drafting and Design. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc, 1965, pg. 418)

Oscar Niemeyer, the designer of Brasilia (planned city), operates on the premise that architectural freedom should be expressed through a conquest of space.(Hepler, Donald and Paul Wallach. Architecture Drafting and Design. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc, 1965, pg. 418)

Eero Saarinen advanced the importance of relationships in stating, "Always design a thing by considering it in its next largest context -- a dish on a table, a table in a room, a room in a house, a house in a neighborhood, a neighborhood in a city."(Hepler, Donald and Paul Wallach. Architecture Drafting and Design. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc, 1965, pg. 418)

ATTACHMENT E:

Post-assessment test

1.How is design utilized in construction technology?
2.What are the four different types of construction technology?
3.Name the six basic volumetric shapes used in the design of a building or structure.
4.List at least three factors that may influence the design of a building or structure.
5.What effect does the team approach have on the design of commercial buildings?
6.What will houses and buildings be and/or look like in 10, 20, 30 or 100 years?