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Mathematics |

Posted Sun Jun 29 21:02:20 PDT 2008 by Stephanie Mullins (Stephanie Mullins).

Boyd County Schools, Ponderosa Elementary , Catlettsburg, Ky., USA

Materials Required: gingerbread man cut-outs, chart paper, buttons

Activity Time: A couple of days to 1 week

Concepts Taught: Measurement, ordinal position, data collection and graphing, counting, patterning, and problem solve

"Count, count as fast as you can!

You can do math with me,

I'm the Gingerbread Man!"I. Unit Grade Level and Subject: K-1, Mathematics

II. Unit Overview: The goal of this unit is to give students experience with foundational math concepts critical to success with state and national content standards in a way that is fun and relevant to the kindergarten age learner. The unit adapts to the various learning styles by offering a variety of auditory, visual, kinesthetic and tactile activities. Students also get multiple opportunities to make choices about their learning preference throughout the unit. While the primary focus is on mathematics, other content areas are also richly embedded in the unit, including literacy, science, and arts and humanities. The related literature was selected to give all students a background and connection with this classic folktale and is a required component of the unit. The Kentucky Core Content, Program of Studies, Academic Expectations, and Bloom's Taxonomy are documented using Proficiency Quest online software which combines all three documents into one user-friendly format.

III. Standards and Content Covered:

A. The Following NCTM Content (#'s1-5) and Process Standards (#'s6-10) Paired with Kentucky Mathematics P.O.S., Core Content, and Academic Expectations (adapted from Proficiency Quest) Will be Covered in This Unit:

1) Number and Operations

MA-EP-1.1.1 (DOK 2) Students will apply multiple representations (e.g., drawings, manipulatives, base-10 blocks, number lines, expanded form, symbols) to describe whole numbers (K-0 to 20).

MA-EP-1.1.2 (DOK 2) Students will read, write, and rename whole numbers (K-0 to 20) and apply to real-world and/or mathematical situations.

MA-EP-1.2.1 (DOK 2) Students will apply and describe appropriate strategies for estimating quantities of objects and computational results (limited to addition and subtraction).

MA-EP-1.3.1 (DOK 2) Students will analyze real-world

problems to identify appropriate representations using

mathematical operations, and will apply operations to solve

real-world problems.

A.E. 1.3, 1.4, 1.12, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1-6.3

2) Algebra

MA-EP-5.1.1 (DOK 2) Students will extend simple patterns

MA-EP-5.3.1 (DOK 2) Students will model real-world and mathematical problems with simple number sentences (equations and inequalities) with a missing value (e.g., 2 + [ ] = 7, [ ] 6), and apply simple number sentences to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

A.E. 1.5-1.9, 2.8, 2.11, 2.12

3) Geometry

MA-EP-3.1.1 (DOK 2) Students will describe and provide

examples of basic geometric elements and terms (sides,

edges, faces, bases, vertices, angles), and will apply

these elements to solve real-world and mathematical

problems (Kindergarten -- introduces sides, corners).

MA-EP-3.1.2 (DOK 2) Students will describe and provide examples of basic two-dimensional shapes (circles, triangles, squares, rectangles, trapezoids, rhombuses, hexagons), and will apply these shapes to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

MA-EP-3.1.3 (DOK 1) Students will describe and provide (k-explore) examples of basic three-dimensional objects (spheres, cones, cylinders, pyramids, cubes), and will apply the attributes to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

A.E. 1.5-1.9, 2.9, 2.10

4) Data Analysis and Probability

MA-EP-4.1.1 (DOK3) Students will analyze and make

inferences from data displays (drawings, tables/charts,

tally tables, pictographs, bar graphs, circle graphs with

two or three sectors, line plots, two-circle Venn

diagrams). (K-Drawings, tables/charts, tally tables,

pictographs, bar graphs introduced.)

MA-EP-4.1.2 (DOK 1) Students will collect data.

MA-EP-4.1.3 (DOK 2) Students will organize and display data.

MA-EP-4.3.1 (DOK 2) Students will pose questions that can be answered by collecting data.

MA-EP-4.4.3 (DOK 3) Students will describe and give examples of the probability of an unlikely event (near zero) and a likely event (near one). (K-will explore probability of heads and tails.)

A.E. 1.5-1.9, 2.13

5) Measurement

MA-EP-2.1.1 (DOK 1) Students will apply standard and nonstandard units to measure length.

MA-EP-2.1.4 (DOK 2) Students will use nonstandard and standard units of measurement to identify measurable attributes of an object.

MA-EP-2.1.6 (DOK 2) Students will estimate weight, length, perimeter, area, angles, and time using appropriate units of measurement.

A.E. 1.5-1.9, 2.10

6) Problem Solving

7) Reasoning & Proof

8) Communication

9) Connections

10)Representation

B. Bloom's Taxonomy:

C. Required literature for this unit:

The Gingerbread Man, by Jim Aylesworth and Barbara McClintock

The Gingerbread Man, by Catherine McCafferty

The Gingerbread Boy, by Paul Galdone

The Gingerbread Baby, by Jan Brett

The Stinky Cheese Man, by John Scieszka

IV. Lessons:Lesson 1

Ordering by Size (Algebra) and Ordinal Positions (Number & Operations)

Mathematic Learning Objectives

The students will:

identify the smallest gingerbread man in the family

identify the largest gingerbread man in the family

order the gingerbread family members from smallest to largest

order the gingerbread family members from largest to smallest

name the ordinal position of each family member, first-fifth

Literature Selection

The Gingerbread Man, by Jim Aylesworth and Barbara McClintock, covered in newsprint (use painter's tape for easy removal)

Materials

The gingerbread family template sheet, 1 set per student

Approximately 10 extra sets already colored and cut-out for possible enrichment use

Crayons and a pair of scissors for each student

1 unsealed ziploc baggie per student to store the gingerbread family (put these in students' small chair pockets ahead of time to eliminate the need to pass them out during the lesson)

Rubric for assessment (Teacher can check off skills as students perform and/or during small group or one-on-one time following the lesson)

Effective Questions

During reading questions to help develop math thinking

What all can you count on the Gingerbread Man? Who came out of the door first? How many are chasing the Gingerbread Man? Now how many? Who is first in line? Who is last? Who is bigger: the Gingerbread Man or the cow (repeat for other story characters)? Who is smaller?

During assessment questions to clarify student thinking and understanding

Can you explain what you have done so far? What else is there to do? Which family member do you like best?

Instructional Plan

Phase 1: Building the background

Gather the students to the carpet and do a rip-and-read (cover the book in newsprint and tear off small pieces for students to make predictions about what they think the book will be about). Next, read the story The Gingerbread Man by Jim Aylesworth, or other version, discussing the story as you go along. Encourage students to choral read the gingerbread man's lines throughout the story and use effective questions from above to help guide mathematical thinking as needed. Following the story discuss the story elements: setting, character(s), problem, solution. Tell students we will tiptoe back to our seats and that I will be looking for quiet volunteers to come up and help us with an idea I have.

Phase 2: Introducing the concepts

Call up five students and without telling the class order them from shortest to tallest. Ask students who can guess what my idea is? Take guesses and ask leading questions such as "Kim says she thinks my idea is ____________ _____________. Do you agree with her? Why or why not?" "What if I wanted to put these kids in order from the tallest to the shortest?" The teacher may need to discuss the concepts of smallest and shortest. When and how are they the same? Different? The class may also need to review our discussions from social studies about how we all come in different sizes and heights and how that is what makes us special. Continue with different groups of five volunteers until all students get a turn. If students are unable to maintain interest, tell them you will choose more volunteers for the activity tomorrow.

Phase 3: Practicing and assessing the concepts

Tell the students "we are going to practice putting a gingerbread family in order from smallest/shortest to tallest/largest but first we will color and cut them out. When you have them colored, cut out and in order from smallest to largest, raise your hand so I can check your work. You may discuss what you are doing with the others at your table." Use the rubric to record student performance. Don't forget to ask the during assessment questions to check student understanding. Make sure to follow-up with students who need extra practice.

Modifications/Adaptations

For students with special learning needs, being able to distinguish between small and large is an appropriate goal. Certainly, we would want to give them the opportunity to do the assessment task in its entirety, but if needed we could have them order only 3 gingerbread men or have a peer work with them. You could also tailor assessment questions to the student's IEP goals.

Enrichment

Students who need enrichment could be given another family set to do patterns or make ordering by size more challenging.

Closing out the lesson

Say "O.K. class, you did some awesome mathematical thinking here today. Raise your hand if you would like to tell what you liked best today." Allow students to share as long as they are engaged. Now it is time to put our families to bed. In your small chair pocket you will find a ziploc baggie. Go ahead and get that out and listen for which family member to put in first. Hold up your smallest gingerbread family member for me to see, then put it in your baggie. Next, let's do the largest family member. Hold it up for me to see, then put it in your baggie. How many are in the bag now?(2) How many are not in the baggie?(3) Out of those 3 not in the baggie, show me the smallest one, great, now put it in the bag. How many in the bag now?(3) Out of the bag?(2) Out of those not in the bag, show me the largest or tallest, super, put it in the bag. Now how many in?(4) Out?(1) What size would you call the 1 left out?(Talk about medium/in between or whatever idea students come up with) So if we want to have 0 left out of the bag, what should I do?(Put the last one in the bag) Let's do it! I am proud of your learning today! Let's stand up and push our chairs in and count as we do 20 Gingerbread Man jumping jacks. . .. . .. . ...Lesson 2

Comparing Sizes (Measurement)

Mathematic Learning Objectives

Given a Gingerbread Man cut-out and tub of various objects, the students will:

correctly identify at least 2 objects larger than the given Gingerbread Man cut-out as evidenced by student recording sheet and teacher observation.

correctly identify at least 2 objects smaller than the given Gingerbread Man cut-out as evidenced by student recording sheet and teacher observation.

correctly identify at least 2 objects the same size as the given Gingerbread Man cut-out as evidenced by student recording sheet and teacher observation.

Literature Selection

The Gingerbread Man, by Catherine McCafferty, covered in newsprint (use painter's tape for easy removal) (or other version as long as it is different from lesson 1 version)

Materials

1 Copy of Measuring with the Gingerbread Man recording sheet for each student (store these in the tubs below)

1 Gingerbread Man di-cut shape paper clipped to the Measuring with the Gingerbread Man recording sheet per student (may want to make a few extra "just in case") (store these in the tubs below) Also have one handy for you to use during phase 2.

1 Tub (for each group of students) containing at least 30 objects of various sizes bigger than, smaller than, and same size as the Gingerbread Man di-cut for students to compare and identify by size (If doing as a center activity you could just use 1 tub or smaller tubs with approximately 10 various sized items for each center member)

Copy of The Gingerbread Man by Jim Aylesworth and Barbara McClintock from lesson 1 to use as a review of the story

1 dot cube for modeling something smaller than a Gingerbread Man in phase 2

1 block or modeling something the same size as the Gingerbread Man di-cut

Overhead transparency of Measuring with the Gingerbread Man recording sheet for modeling in phase 2

Visa-V marker(s) for writing on transparency

Technology:

Overhead projector

Effective Questions:

During reading questions to help develop math thinking

What can you count on this Gingerbread Man? Who came out of the door first? How many are chasing the Gingerbread Man? Now how many? Who is first in line? Who is last? Who is bigger: the Gingerbread Man or the cow (repeat for other story characters)? Who is smaller?

During assessment questions to clarify student thinking and understanding

Can you explain what you have done so far? What else is there to do? Show me how you figured that out? How did you decide this one was bigger? smaller? these were the same size?

Instructional Plan:

Phase 1: Building the Background

Gather students to the carpet and show students The Gingerbread Man story from yesterday and briefly review the plot (or re-read if students request). Tell students you are going to read a different story today. Place yesterday's book on display where it can still be seen then show them the book The Gingerbread Man, by Catherine McCarty, covered in newsprint. Do a second rip-and-read and see if they guess the theme sooner than yesterday. Allow them to comment on differences in the book covers and encourage predictions about today's story. Will it be the same or different as yesterday's? Record predictions on chart paper. Read the story, again discussing and asking effective questions to stimulate mathematical thinking. Also allow students to choral read the Gingerbread Man's part and check their predictions about the two stories'. At the book's conclusion, again review the story elements of setting, character(s), problem, solution. Complete a Venn diagram with the students' input. If no student brings up size as a component of the Venn ask leading questions ("Is the Gingerbread Man the smallest character in both stories?" Which character is the biggest in the first story? Is that the same in the second story?") to get students to think and comment about that. Use this as a lead into phase 2.

Phase 2: Introducing the concepts

Allow students to go back to their seats while telling them you will choose a few different volunteers to help you today. Choose five different students to come up and have the rest of the class order them from smallest to largest/tallest then vice versa. Discuss the ordinal positions of each student in random order. Show the students a Gingerbread Man di-cut and ask them if it is bigger than, smaller than, or the same size as our volunteers.(Smaller than) Turn on the overhead projector and show them how you will record that on the recording form. Now show them a dot cube and ask them the same question.(Bigger than) Ask students how to instruct you how to show this on the recording form. Repeat using a block the same size as the Gingerbread Man di-cut.(Same size) Tell students it is their turn to find and record some things that are bigger than, smaller than, and the same size as a Gingerbread Man di-cut.

Phase 3: Practicing and assessing the concepts

Quickly distribute tubs to each table and instruct students to get out a Gingerbread Man di-cut and recording form. Paperclips go back into the tubs. Tell students they can work in groups of 2, but that they should take turns being the recorder and the finder so that each gets practice with writing/drawing (students are able to write, draw, or do both on this form) and the math skills. Monitor students closely, again asking questions about their thinking and recording progress on the assessment rubric.

Adaptations/Modifications

For students who have special learning needs first allow them to try the activity then modify the amount of items to choose from as needed. You may just have them find things that are bigger than the di-cut, then smaller than the di-cut. You could even take out the Gingerbread Man comparison and have them sort items as either big or small.

Enrichment

For students who complete the assessment task quickly, you may want to let them find additional objects in the classroom that they could record.

Closing out the lesson

Once you have been able to check with each group, close out the lesson by giving students a one-minute warning until clean-up time. Then give them a 20 second count to put all materials back in their place. Quickly collect the tubs while asking students questions like "what did you like about this lesson? Was there anything you did not like? Tell me something that is bigger than a dog. Tell me something that is smaller than a car." Etc. Have students stand up, push in their chairs, and pretend to be Gingerbread Men/Women while they run in place counting to sixty by 1's in their Gingerbread voices.Lesson 3

Counting Candies for Perimeter and Area of a Gingerbread Man (Number & Operations)

Mathematic Learning Objectives

The students will:

count using one-to-one correspondence how many cinnamon candies, raisins, and marshmallows it takes to make the perimeter of a Gingerbread Man/Boy/Woman/Girl template as denoted by teacher observation.

count using one-to-one correspondence how many cinnamon candies, raisins, and marshmallows it takes to make the area of a Gingerbread Man/Boy/Woman/Girl template as denoted by teacher observation.

Literature Selection

The Gingerbread Boy, by Paul Galdone, again covered in newsprint

Materials

Various Gingerbread Man/Boy/Woman/Girl templates for counting out perimeter and area in phase 3

bowl of wrapped cinnamon candies for phase 3 (1 12oz. bag is just right)

bowl of miniature marshmallows for phase 3 (2 bags so that students can eat some after they count)

bowl of raisins for phase 3 (3 small boxes or one large box)

Effective Questions

During reading questions to help develop math thinking

What can we count on the Gingerbread Boy? Who came out of the door first? How many are chasing the Gingerbread Boy? Now how many? Who is first in line? Who is last? Who is bigger: the Gingerbread boy or the cow (repeat for other story characters)? Who is smaller? How many chased the Gingerbread Boy in this story?

During assessment questions to clarify student thinking and understanding

When students finish counting each candy, ask them how many candies it took to go around (perimeter) the Gingerbread Man? How many to fill in (area) the Gingerbread Man? Which type of candy took more? Why? Which took less? Why? How did you figure that out? What would happen to the number of candies if we had a smaller Gingerbread Man? A bigger one?

Instructional Plan

Phase 1: Building the Background

Call the students over to the carpet and again review the two previous stories and the Venn diagram. Show students today's newsprint covered book and have them make their predictions about the story beneath. Slowly tear off the first piece of newsprint, and allow students to comment on what they see. Continue until all the newsprint has been removed. If no student has figured out the title go ahead and share that allowing students to comment on the fact that this time the story is about a Gingerbread Boy instead of a man. Talk about what the Gingerbread Boy looks like and what he is wearing. "What was he wearing in the other stories?" Read the story and discuss, asking during reading questions and comparing/contrasting the 3 stories. Tell students that today in the math center we will be figuring out how many candies it takes to go around a Gingerbread Man/Boy, Woman/Girl (have different templates for students to choose from). So let's go quietly back to our seats and get ready for center time.

Phases 2-3: Introducing, practicing, and assessing the Concepts

Because this activity could be hard to manage whole group, the teacher will work with small groups of 3-4 students at a time in the math center. It will also make it easier to monitor the one-to-one correspondence of counting out numbers beyond 20, and providing guidance, modifications, and enrichment when needed. Don't forget to record student performance on the assessment rubric. During this time the rest of the class will be doing activities of their choice. Some of the other Gingerbread themed activities include:

Candyland color BINGO game with Gingerbread Man game markers

Contributing to a class book where students create their page by filling in their name and illustrating the following text: "Run, Run" said ____________. You can't catch me, I'm the Gingerbread Boy/Girl." Boy's text is printed on yellow a paper, girl's is printed on pink paper.

Gingerbread memory match game

Computers with the Starfall create-a-Gingerbread man interactive story

Listening to "The Gingerbread Man" on tape

Using Gingerbread Man and Woman cookie cutters to play in the Gingerbread dough (homemade playdoh with cinnamon added for color and scent)

"Reading" the other Gingerbread stories we have been working with throughout the unit.

Read the room using a Gingerbread Man pointer

Making patterns with Gingerbread di-cuts of various colors/designs

Creating and recording number sentences on Gingerbread Math recording form by rolling dot cubes (blue dot cube for the boy and pink dot cube for the girl)

Roll a Gingerbread Man game

*These centers will be available to students for the rest of the week. Each provides more great opportunities for the teacher to use effective questioning strategies to clarify and extend student understanding. This also provides time to re-teach and re-assess skills that were not demonstrated previously. The web contains countless resources for more fun learning activities like these that I plan to create and add to my unit as more time and money becomes available to me.

Adaptations/Modifications

For students who are not developmentally ready for counting objects above 20 or even 10, you could go with a smaller template and/or larger candies, like big marshmallows, so that the number of items to count is much less. You could also do hand-over-hand prompting to assist with one-to-one correspondence. To work on fine-motor skills you could allow the student to still manipulate the small marshmallows and raisins by placing them around the perimeter of the template and filling in the template, but just not requiring them to count all of them. The counting could be incorporated by saying, "now that you have filled in the Gingerbread Man, can you put 7 of those raisins in my hand? Count them as you put them in my hand."

Enrichment

For students who require an extra challenge, you could have them put the candies they counted onto 10 frames and talk about how many groups of 10 were in the number, how many more were left, and how many more to make another set of 10. You could also have them put them into groups of 5 and count by 5's (a skill we have been working on using the hundreds chart). Ask them lots of questions about their thinking and see where it leads.

Closing out the lesson

Give students the one minute until clean-up time warning. Tell them if they did not get to do something they wanted to do, we will be continuing these centers tomorrow. Have them clean-up quietly while singing "One little, two little, three little Gingerbread Girls." Repeat substituting girls for boys.Lesson 4

Problem-solving with the Gingerbread Man

Mathematic Learning Objectives

The students will:

determine how many buttons need to be put out for each person in their group to get 2.

write and/or draw how they came up with their answer.

Literature Selection

The Gingerbread Baby, by Jan Brett, covered in newsprint

Materials

1 Piece of large chart paper with a T-chart labeled "babies" on the left and "buttons" on the right to use during phase 2

Tape a di-cut Gingerbread Baby with 2 buttons on its "shirt" to the far left side of the chart under the heading "buttons"

1 di-cut Gingerbread Baby per student and 3-4 with buttons for demonstration during phase 2

glue

2 buttons per student to be glued onto their Gingerbread baby

1 bowl per table to put the buttons in

tape

1 Gingerbread person shaped cookie for each student

1 tub of vanilla frosting put into bowls (either one bowl/student or 1 per table to share) for adhering the candy buttons onto the cookies

Plastic knives or spoons (depending on your students) to put the frosting on the buttons or cookies

2 candy buttons per student (or other small round candy representing a button- M&M minis would also work well)

Effective Questions

During reading questions to help develop math thinking

What all can you count on the Gingerbread Baby? Who came out of the door first in this story? How many are chasing the Gingerbread Baby? Now how many? Who is first in line? Who is 2nd, 3rd, etc., last? Who is bigger: the Gingerbread Baby or the cow (repeat for other story characters)? Is there any character that is smaller? How many chased the Gingerbread Baby? How is this story like the others? How is it different?

During assessment questions to clarify student thinking and understanding

When students think they have figured out the and have recorded how they got it check their thinking by asking

"How did you figure that out? Tell me about your drawing. What if we had one more person at this table, how many buttons would we need? What if we had one less person?

Instructional Plan

Phase 1: Building the Background

Gather the students to the carpet and review the three previous books. Take predictions then begin the rip-and-read. When the new book is revealed begin discussing the similarities and differences in the four book covers. Take predictions about the story plot then begin reading, employing the during reading questioning strategies. Conclude the story with a discussion about the different Gingerbread character's clothing. Ask questions until someone brings up the buttons on the Gingerbread Baby's clothes. Ask the students how many buttons were on the clothes?(2) "Do any of you have buttons on your clothes?" Discuss and analyze. Show students the T-Chart and tell them that after they get back to their seats, they will help me figure out a problem.

Phase 2: Introducing the concept

Say "So let's talk about my chart. What do you see on it?(words, a Gingerbread Baby, a big Capital T) You are correct, it has all of those things on it and it will help me figure out how many buttons there would be for a lot of Gingerbread Babies. O.K. let's look at the Gingerbread Baby that is on the chart. How many buttons are on it?(2) Right, just like the one in the story, so I will write a 2 under this word that says-can anyone figure it out-that's right buttons. I have 2 buttons on how many Gingerbread Babies?(1) You are correct again! So I will write a 1 under this word-what is it-yes babies. Now let's read it together: I have 2 buttons on 1 Gingerbread Baby. But, what if I had 2 Gingerbread Babies?" (Write a 2 under babies column) "How many buttons would I have then?"(4) (If no one figures it out go ahead and put up two more Gingerbread Babies, under the first one, so students can count the buttons, otherwise put the babies up after they figure out the answer.) "Wow, you guys are awesome. Let's see if you can try solving a problem like this in your groups. In your chair pocket is a Gingerbread Baby cut-out and a white square piece of paper. Take those out and decorate the Gingerbread Baby the way you want it. While you work I will be coming around with some buttons for you to glue onto your baby, but first I need you to tell me how many buttons to put out at your table so that each person in your group gets 2 buttons, just like in the story and on our T-chart. So we don't give away the answer out loud, I need you to show me on paper how you got your answer by drawing a picture of what you thought in your mind. When you have it raise your hand and I will check your answer and put out your buttons."

Phase 3: Practicing and assessing the concepts

Monitor student work, using effective questions to check for student understanding. Once all students have finished take up the Gingerbread Babies to add to the T-chart later in the afternoon (take up their rationales and save as progress documentation). Now tell students you are going to give them a real gingerbread cookie so they can have one to eat. Tell them again, they have to figure out how many candy buttons I need to put out for everyone in their group to get 2. Have them talk to each other and figure out the answer and when I come to the table they have to tell me as a group how many I need to put out. Discuss procedures for working with the frosting.

Adaptations/Modifications

Students who are unable to solve the problem may need a visual prompt. They could be called up to the teacher area and count the buttons on 3-4 pre-made gingerbread babies. They may just need a prompt to get them started, such as "o.k. so how many people are in your group?(4) Why don't you sketch 4 gingerbread babies (circles work fine) then draw 2 buttons for each and see if you can figure it out."

Enrichment

For students who need an extra challenge, have them figure out how many you would need for each student to get 1, 3, 4, etc. buttons.

Closing out the lesson

Once students finish eating their cookies, have the special helper assist you in collecting any garbage. Go back to the T-chart and have them figure out how many buttons for 3 more Gingerbread Babies, record, then post 3 more babies on the chart. Tell the students that later we will use their Gingerbread babies to finish filling out the chart but for now we will get back to our centers. Go over any needed procedures, directions, etc.

*Since this lesson takes at least 30-40 minutes to get to this point, it will be a 2-parter. The T-chart completion could take place later in the afternoon or the following day before beginning the next lesson. To complete the T-chart students' babies would be added to the chart 3 at a time, then 4 at a time, etc. As they assist the teacher in completing the number of buttons to babies.

Lesson 5

Graphing With the Gingerbread Man and Culminating Activity

Mathematic Learning Objectives:

The students will:

determine the most popular Gingerbread Man story by interpreting the bar graph.

Required Literature:

The Stinky Cheese Man, by Jon Scieszka, wrapped in newsprint

Materials:

Large sheet of chart paper with copies of the book covers read this week, reduced to 3"x5" size, and posted on the bottom of the paper to make a bar graph

8 1/2"x11" size graph of the above for students who want to keep their own graph along with the class graph

Small Gingerbread Man cut-outs (1 per student) for graphing their favorite Gingerbread Man story

Gingerbread mix to bake a big gingerbread man for our culminating activity

Raisins for eyes, mouth, and buttons

Cinnamon disc for a nose

Wax paper and large cookie sheet for baking the gingerbread man

Oven

Pre-arrange with the cafeteria staff a time for you to bring down the gingerbread man to bake. Have them remove and hide the gingerbread man before the teacher and class comes to get him. While the class is going through the school trying to catch the gingerbread man, have someone take it to the classroom and hide it in a fairly easy to spot location.

Effective Questions

During reading questions to help develop math thinking

What all can you count on the Stinky Cheese Man? How many chased him? What does that number mean? How many Gingerbread stories did we read this week? How many Stinky Cheese Man stories did we read? How many is that all together? What happened first or at the beginning of the story? What happened second or in the middle of the story? What happened third or at the end of the story?

During assessment questions to develop and clarify student math thinking

So how many people chose this story as their favorite? How about this one? How can you tell which was the most popular? How many more people chose story 2 than story 3? What about story 1 vs. story 5, etc.? What if we turned our graph sideways like this, now how can you tell which one was the most popular?

Instructional Plan

Phase 1: Building the Background

Repeat the process for introducing and reading the book. This one will draw out lots of discussion as it takes quite a different turn than the other four. Use the effective questions to draw out the math in the story. Once the story has been read and discussion is complete tell students they may get a gingerbread character cut-out from me and go back to their seat.

Phase 2: Introducing the concept

Have them decorate the cut-out if they want, then put their name on the front using a black crayon so everyone can see it. Show them the chart paper graph and tell them they will be graphing their favorite gingerbread story we have read this week, just like we have done many other graphs before. Remind them to graph the story they like best, and not worry about what other people like.

Phase 3: Practicing and assessing the concept

Begin calling students up one at a time to graph their choice. Once all students have graphed their favorite story begin analyzing the graph using the effective questions. Carefully listen for each student to show you their interpretation of the graph. You may also work with a small group of students or individuals later to make sure they understand how to read the graph's results. Record results on assessment rubric.

Adaptations/Modifications

This activity usually offers success for all students, but if a student has trouble interpreting the graph work with them one-on-one to count how many votes each story had. Have them show a little with their hands, then have them a lot with their arms and hands. Show them other examples of a little and a lot then go back to the graph and see if they can find the one with a little and the one with a lot.

Enrichment

For students who need an extra challenge, give them their own graph and let them record the results on their graph as the students place their choices on the class graph.

Closing out the lesson

Once the class has thoroughly analyzed the graph call them to gather around the back table where I will be making a gingerbread man that we can bake and eat!

Culminating Activity

Mix up a box of gingerbread mix and form the dough into a large gingerbread man. Add the eyes, nose, mouth, and buttons. Have the students form a line behind you and take the gingerbread man down to the cafeteria to bake. When you go to get the gingerbread man from the cafeteria, the staff informs you that he has ran away! Take the class throughout the school to look for clues to help catch him. When all leads turn up dead ends, sadly take the class back to the room and tell that maybe we could try to make another one tomorrow. When students come back to the room, it is not before one of them spots the naughty gingerbread man and excitedly announces she has found him! After the excitement settles down, cut up the cookie and allow students to enjoy a piece. You could then graph who whether or not the students like gingerbread. This is a really fun way to end the unit and the students will talk about it for a long time to come!