Grade: Middle
Subject: Science

#4286. Phases of the Moon

Science, level: Middle
Posted Sun Dec 7 18:49:36 PST 2008 by Dorothy Puglisi (Dorothy Puglisi).
Materials Required: Paper, Pencil, Clock, Calendar
Concepts Taught: Moon Phases

Lesson Plan
Lesson Plan Title: Phases of the Moon

Concept / Topic To Teach: Understanding we can see the Moon because it is reflecting light from the Sun and it appears differently because the Moon is spinning as it orbits Earth.
Standards Addressed: SOL ES. 4b
The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of the Earth and the solar system.
Key concepts include:
sun-Earth-moon relationships
General Goal(s): Science -- The phases of the Moon
The students will be able to see that the Moon appears differently due to the reflecting light from the sun, the spin of the moon and its orbit around the Earth.

Specific Objectives:
• The student will investigate and understand that the moon has different phases and the phases are caused by the sun-Earth-moon relationship.
Key concepts include:
a) How the moon changes phase
b) How the Earth and Sun affect the Moon's appearance
c) How the Moon affects the Earth
Required Materials:
Paper (Moon phase record)
• Pencil
• Clock
• Calendar
Anticipatory Set (Lead-In):
• Read Textbook chapter regarding the Moon
• Ask students questions to spark their interest such as:
1) What do they think they will observe each night?
2) How do they think the phases affect the Earth?
3) What would happen if the moon did not exist?
• Have students make their moon phase record
• Instruct them on filling out the record
• Have the students compare and discuss the records prior to turning them in and compare them to the lunar calendar
Step-By-Step Procedures:
1. Complete the reading in the textbook regarding the Moon and its phases. Ask them questions to discover their knowledge of the Moon after reading.

2. Have them create their moon phase record.
Draw eight round moon-like shapes
Next to each shape leave room for the date and time to be recorded
3. Choose a clear night and have students go outside and observe the shape of the Moon. Color the first moon identical to the moon in the sky. Wait two nights and observe the shape of the moon again and repeat. Continue until each of the eight moons are completed.
4. Have the students compare and discuss the records
5. Have them compare their records to the lunar calendar
Plan For Independent Practice: Have the students complete the questions in their textbook regarding the Moon.

Closure (Reflect Anticipatory Set):
• Students will share their own observations of the Moons phases and effects
• Have students check their record with the lunar calendar.
Assessment Based On Objectives:
• Ask questions to determine their knowledge of the Moon and its phases
• Have students complete the questions at the end of the textbook section on the Moon.
• Have the students complete their Moon phase record

Adaptations (For Students With Learning Disabilities):
• Provide the Moon phase record for the students
• Fill in the record from the lunar calendar
• Students can compare the record they fill have finished in class with the moon at night

Extensions (For Gifted Students): Have students detail the moons phases, how they are created and how they affect the Earth in a one page essay.

Possible Connections To Other Subjects: Reading comprehension