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Grade: Middle
Subject: Science

#4586. Scientific Thinking and Problem Solving

Science, level: Middle
Posted Sun Apr 1 15:29:56 PDT 2012 by Kristie Caldwell (Kristie Caldwell).
Sheridan Junior High School, Sheridan, Wyoming
Activity Time: 50 minute lessons
Concepts Taught: Scientific Method

Scientific Thinking --Lesson 1 (two 50 minute class periods)
Objectives: Assess student's prior knowledge on scientific thinking and problem solving.
Brainstorm how scientist think and solve problems.


Materials:
• 2 large pieces of butcher paper for each class period
• Large Sharpie marker
• 1 copy of "What is a Scientist" activity per student
• Colored Pencils
• School picture of each student (optional)

Lesson Overview:
1. Warm-up: Students will write down what they think scientific thinking is on a 3 x 5 card. Students will pair-and-share their ideas then turn their cards in for the teacher to use as an assessment of prior knowledge.

2. Brainstorm Activity: Whole class
a. Place one of the sheets of butcher paper on the board with the title "How do Scientists Think" written at the top.
b. Ask students to brainstorm ways that scientists think and solve problems. Write down all ideas.
c. Place the second piece of butcher paper on the board with the title "Who are Scientists?"
d. Ask students to brainstorm the characteristics of people who are scientists. Write down all ideas.
e. Leave the lists on the board for students to reference in the next activity.

3. What is a Scientist? (attached)
a. On the left side of the paper draw a scientist. Use the colored pencils to add color.
b. On the right side of the paper write a short paragraph describing what it means to think like a scientist.
c. When students are done have them walk around the room and observe each other's drawings of scientists. As a group discuss the similarities the students observed (there will be many that look like the stereotypical mad scientist). Then discuss the stereotypes that most people have concerning what a scientist looks like and why the students think those stereotypes exist. (Male, white, balding or crazy Einstein hair, wearing a lab coat, working in a lab, glasses etc.)
d. Have the student's pair and share their paragraphs.
e. Optional: Give each student a copy of their school picture to glue over the head of their scientist drawing. Discuss how everyone is a scientist.
f. End the activity by having students look at a variety of age-appropriate books depicting scientists working in different science fields, male and female, young and old, different nationalities, etc. (Your local public library or school librarian can help you collect a variety of appropriate books.)

Assessment:
• All activities provide an assessment of prior knowledge.

Scientific Thinking --Lesson 2 (50 minute class period)

Objective: Introduction to thinking scientifically and solving problems logically.
Use what was learned from a disproved hypothesis to guide the formation of a new hypothesis
Work in teams to solve problems to foster collaboration and sharing of ideas.

Materials:
• For each group of 3 students: Two pieces of clothesline about 1.5 meters each with a slip knot tied on each end.
• Rope Problem Activity pages for each student

Lesson Overview:
1. Warm-Up: Complete and discuss the pre-lab questions for the activity.

2. Rope Problem Activity (attached)
a. Read through the procedure with the students.
b. Using volunteers, demonstrate the proper way to "tangle" the ropes.
c. Place the students into groups of 3.
d. Explain the details for each job (Person A, Person B and the recorder)
e. Hand out materials and let them start thinking and solving problems!
f. You will most likely need to give periodic hints on how to solve the problem. I usually let the kids work on it for 10 minutes or so and then give a hint. Without hints they soon get frustrated and give up. This is also a good time to remind students that scientists frequently hit dead ends and that each "failed" hypothesis is really a learning point.
g. Once everyone has successfully solved the problem, have the students work in their groups and answer the post-lab questions.
h. Discuss the post-lab questions as a class.

Assessment:
Observe to determine whether students are using good problem solving techniques and revising their hypotheses each time. Observe to see whether students are learning from disproven hypotheses and using that evidence to create an improved hypothesis. I carry a class roster spreadsheet and make notes while I am walking around.

Scientific Thinking--Lesson 3 (2 50 min. class periods depending on pacing)

Objectives: Differentiate between real science and pseudo-science.

Materials:
• Video: Bill Nye the Science Guy-Pseudoscience
• Video Activity Sheet--1 per student
• Scientific Method Notes--1 per student

Lesson Overview:
1. Warm-Up: Ask students whether astrology is real science. Ask students whether paleontology is real science. Have student's pair and share reasons why or why not.

2. Video: Bill Nye --Pseudo Science. (attached)
Real science must be testable and repeatable.
Pseudo-science cannot be repeated and is not really a testable problem or question.
Please watch the video for examples of real science and examples of pseudo-science. Write these examples on the chart on your video worksheet.
• Discuss the differences between pseudo-science and real science when the video is complete. Also list examples of each.

3. Scientific Method Notes (attached)
a. Fill in the notes together as a whole class.

b. Discuss how this is the formal method scientists use when solving real problems like determining the effect of pesticides in water on frog deformities. This method cannot be used to validate the existence of ghosts or Bigfoot, for example, because the problem (Does Bigfoot exist?) is not really testable in a systematic way and any evidence that was collected (ie. a video of a Bigfoot) could not be repeated for validity.

4. Exit Card: Have students define real science and pseudo science and give an example of each.


Assessment:
Use the exit cards to determine whether students understand the objective or whether there needs to be some re-teach.


Scientific Thinking--Lesson 4 ( One 50 minute class period)

Objective: Learn vocabulary and review the steps for the scientific method

Materials:
• Brain Pop Notes page--1 per student
• Brain Pop--www. brainpop.com (there is a short term free trial period available)
• I have. . .who has vocabulary cards
o Please print two copies of the master page. Have one copy laminated and cut out each individual card. These cards will be the game cards. Keep one copy of the master intact and stapled together for the teachers to use as a "cheat sheet" during the game.

Lesson Overview
1. Brain Pop Activity (attached)
a. View the brain pop video on scientific method. Pause occasionally for students to fill in the notes.
b. Review and discuss the notes as a class.

2. I have. . .who has. . .vocabulary game. (Cards master attached)
a. Pass out one or more cards to each student until all cards are gone. Students do not need to have equal numbers of cards.
b. Choose an "I have. . ." definition to start the game. The starting point does not matter as the game will come full circle.
c. The student with the chosen definition will say, (example) "I have controlled experiment. Who has a way of learning about the natural world?"
d. The person who has the term to go with the previous definition should then speak up and say, " I have science. Who has. . ." etc.
e. The first few times you play the students will need lots of hints and prompting to get through the game. Help them out or they will get frustrated. Also make sure to fix mistakes immediately or the entire game will de-rail. After the students begin to get the hang of the game and get a better grasp of the vocabulary they will start picking up speed. This is the time to turn it into a friendly competition and start recording the fastest time for each class period on the board. The students love the challenge!
f. Once students get the hang of the game, this activity is quite useful for those times you have 5 or so minutes to fill at the end of a class period.
g. If students are having a difficult time with the vocabulary consider making a vocabulary study sheet for students to fill in as they play the game. Make a two column sheet that has the definition already filled out in the right hand column, leaving the left hand column for the term blank. While playing the game students will fill in the terms on their study sheet. These sheets can then be used as a reference during the game. The teacher can gradually release the students from the need to have a reference page in front of them. This is also a good accommodation for SPED students or students who need remediation.

Assessment:
Monitor progress of knowledge of scientific vocabulary and the steps of the scientific method. I use a roster spreadsheet for this activity. I print out a roster with 8 or so columns. Then I write the date at the top of the column whenever we play the game. I put a ++ (have it down), + (could use additional practice) or -- (needs re-teaching) for each student so that I can monitor progress and provide additional forms of practice or one-on-one re-teaching if necessary.

Scientific Thinking--Lesson 5 (Two 50 minute class periods)

Objectives: Differentiate between observations, inferences and predictions.
Differentiate between qualitative data and quantitative data.

Materials:
• Copy of the "Boy in Water" activity sheet and "Ancient Coin" activity sheet for each student.
Both can be found at the following website:
http://www.blm.gov/id/st/en/fo/shoshone/wilson_butte_cave/teacher_pages/Archaeology_FUNdamentals/Observation_and_Inference_activity.html

• Observation Mini-lab for each student
• Materials for lab (see lab sheet for list)

Lesson Overview
1. Warm-Up: Play a round of I Have. . .Who Has. . . for vocabulary review and practice.

2. Observation, Inference and Prediction Activity (Boy in the Water & Ancient Coin)
a. As a class, review what observation, inference and prediction are. Talk through several examples of each until you feel that students are ready to try to the activity in small groups.
b. Pass out the Ancient Coin activity. Have students work in pairs or small groups to determine whether each statement is an observation, inference or prediction. When students are finished discuss the answers as a whole class.
c. Pass out the Boy in the Water activity. Have students work individually to determine whether each statement is an observation, inference or prediction. When students are finished discuss the answers as a whole class. Have students correct any mistakes in a colored pen and hand in when completed.

3. Observation Mini-Lab (attached)
a. As a class discuss the difference between qualitiative (descriptive) and quantitative (numerical) data. Discuss that each type of data is equally important and depending on the investigation you may collect only type of data or you may collect both types of data.
b. Have students work in pairs to complete the lab.
c. As a class discuss the results.

2. Quiz: Observation, Inference and Understanding Check (attached)
a. Have students take this short formative quiz to check for understanding of this the objectives of this lesson.

Assessment:
Make piles of "has it, little more practice, and re-teach" for the boy in the water activity. Provide future opportunities for re-teach and practice for students who need it and enrichment for students who "have it". Use the results from the formative quiz to guide future instruction in terms of moving forward or taking some time to re-teach concepts.

Scientific Thinking--Lesson 6 (One 50 minute class period)

Objective: Practice making predictions and writing hypotheses for a real problem
Make qualitative observations and organize this data into a table.

Materials: Example
• Lab Activity Sheet for each student
• 2 Liter pop bottle with 3 holes in the middle of one side.
Holes should be approximately ฝ inch apart.
• Electrical Tape to cover the holes.

Lesson Overview:
1. Warm-Up:
a. Review qualitative and quantitative data.
b. Review how to write an if. . .then. . .hypothesis.
c. Introduce independent and dependent variables and how they relate to the if and then statements in the hypothesis.
i. For example: If I pull the tape from the first hole (independent variable--the variable the scientist changes on purpose), then water will flow from the hole. (dependent variable--the variable that changes in response to a change in the independent variable.)

2. Three Hole Bottle Activity (attached)
a. Follow the procedure on the lab.
i. Hints:
1. Be careful not to pull the tape down past the hole you are on so you don't give away what will happen next.
2. Replace the tape after each class period. When the tape gets too waterlogged it won't stick well and the bottle will leak.
3. Make sure lid is on tight so water does not leak from the hole when it shouldn't be.
4. For fun: The teacher can stand on a table holding the bottle over the head of a student volunteer while removing tape from the holes. I like to provide the student volunteer with a big yellow rain hat, but a large plastic trash bag will do. Nothing at all and a little bit of getting wet is also fun.
5. You will need to model how to create a data table for students since this will likely be the first time they create one.

3. Exit Card: Write an If. . .Then. . .hypothesis on the board for students to copy onto a 3 X 5 card. (ie. If I given my corn plant fertilizer everyday then it will grow taller). Have the students underline the independent variable and circle the dependent variable. Extension: Have students write an additional hypothesis themselves and underline the independent variable and circle the dependent variable.

Assessment:
Make piles of "has it, little more practice, and re-teach" for the exit cards. Provide re-teach opportunities for students who need it and enrichments for students who have it.


Scientific Thinking--Lesson 7 (Two 50 min. class periods.)

Objective: Introduce solving a problem using scientific inquiry.

Materials:
• Scientific Inquiry Lab page--1 for each student
• Scientific Inquiry Steps Reference Page--1 for each student
• 2 small beakers
• Water
• Salt and sugar--pre-measured at 3 grams each per student group.
• Plastic spoon
• Timer , clock or watch

Lesson Overview

1. Warm-Up:
a. Review independent and dependent variables.
b. Practice identifying which variable is the If statement in a hypothesis and which variable is the Then statement by giving students examples to underline and circle the appropriate variables.

2. Scientific Inquiry Lab
a. Project a copy of the lab sheets on the board. Since this is the first time that students will be completing a lab, everyone will be doing it together at the same time.
b. The left side of the paper is the notes side. The right side of the paper is the lab activity side.
i. Work through both sides of the first page together. (Use the attached key)
ii. Fill in the information for the data section.
iii. Have the students work in pairs to complete the lab and record the data in the data table.
iv. Work through the conclusion section together.
v. Clean-up.

Assessment:
Have students debrief their thoughts about the first complete scientific inquiry on an exit card. On a 3 x 5 card have students write their thoughts about:
• I liked . . ..
• I didn't like. . .
• I feel like I really understand. . .
• I am confused about. . .

Use the data from the cards to structure what concepts may need more review in warm-ups etc.


Scientific Thinking--Lesson 8 (One 50 minute class period)

Objective: Assess the progress of students understanding of unit objectives.
Practice writing questions and hypotheses, and identifying variables for a real-world scientific problem.

Materials:
• Strange Case of Beri Beri and Discovery of Penicillian Practice sheet--One per student
• Scientific Method Quiz


Lesson Overview

1. Warm-Up: Using data you have obtained from exit cards and observations, review concepts that students need some re-teaching on and / or play a round of I have. . .Who has for vocab. practice.

2. Scientific Method in Action: The Strange Case of Beri Beri (attached)
a. Talk about how this is an actual event that happened which was solved inquiry and the scientific method.
b. Read through the event together with the students.
c. Having students pair and share, work through each question one at a time.
i. Give each pair about two minutes to discuss their answer to question #1 and reasons for it and write it down on their paper. Then discuss what answers students came up with as a whole class.
ii. Move on to question 2 and repeat the procedure through question # 5

d. Have students work on the penicillian problem individually.
i. Walk around and offer individual help to kids.
ii. Go through the correct answers to the questions as a class when everyone has finished.

3. Scientific Method Quiz (attached)
a. Have students take the quiz and turn it in.


Assessment:
Use the data from the quiz to determine the need for whole class re-teaching, differentiated instruction within the classroom for students as different levels of comprehension of the objectives, or if students are ready to move on.

Scientific Thinking --Lesson 9 (One 50 minute class period)

Objective: Hypotheses / theories can change when new information is discovered.
Scientists may not come up with the same conclusion, even when they have the same evidence or data to work with.

Materials:
• Dogs and Turnips Activity Pages and Word Cards
All materials can be found at the following site.
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/education/dynamic/session4/sess4_act1.htm


Lesson Overview:

1. Dog and Turnip Activity
a. Go to the link above to download all the materials and a very detailed explanation of the procedure and purpose for the assignment.
i. Hint:
1. Copy each set of word cards on different colored paper so if groups accidently mix their words they are easy to sort out.
2. Have students work in groups of two. Larger than two results in not enough action and kids getting bored.


2. Exit Card /Assessment:
Have students write down the "big ideas" they came away with from this activity. Use this information to assess whether students understood the objectives for this lesson.

Scientific Thinking--Lesson 10 (Two 50 minute class periods)

Objectives: Students apply the knowledge they have gained over the course of the unit on solving a
scientific problem.

Materials:
• Paper Falling Lab--one for each student
• 3 pieces of scrap for each student
• Timer, clock or watch


Lesson Overview:

1. Warm-Up: Use information you have gathered from the informal assessments and observations during the past few days of the unit to determine what should be reviewed / re-taught during this time.

2. Performance Assessment: Paper Falling Lab (attached)
a. Explain the purpose of the lab is to see if students know and are able to do a scientific inquiry themselves.
b. Have the procedure written on the board. The procedure is hard to write and most students are not ready to do so at this time so the lab does not have a place for the procedure on it.
c. Read through the problem together and explain what you expect each student to demonstrate for you on the lab paper.
d. Give each student a copy of the lab, 3 pieces of paper and a timer or access to a clock. Assign a partner that will help them to time their paper falling. The partner is only for help with timing, each student should complete their own independent investigation.
e. Turn the students loose to investigate!


Assessment:
This unit is an introductory unit for a year-long theme of science inquiry. Students are not expected to be proficient at completing an investigation independently at this point in time. This is the first of many performance assessments that students will complete throughout the year. By the end of the year students should be proficient at completing an assessment like this by themselves. This assessment is useful in showing progress (or lack of progress) toward the objective of solving a scientific problem in a logical manner.


Scientific Thinking--Lesson 11 (One 50 minute class period)

Objective: Demonstrate understanding of scientific thinking.

Materials: Unit Summative Assessment--one per student


Lesson Overview:

1. Warm-up: Review concepts relevant to the test the students are about to take.

2. Unit Summative Assessment (attached)
a. Each student will complete the summative assessment.

Assessment:
Use the data from the summative to plan for future differentiated instruction on scientific thinking and problem solving. This unit is an introductory unit for a year-long theme of scientific thinking and problem solving. Students should be monitored for growth towards the unit objectives through-out the year. Provide opportunities for re-teach and re-assessment of this unit test for students who are not proficient.




References
Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science & Technical Subjects. (2011). Common Core State Standards. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards
Jorgenson, O., Cleveland, J. & Vanosdall R., (2004). Doing good science in middle school: A practical guide to inquiry-based instruction. Arlington, Virginia: NSTA Press
Janulaw, A., Scotchmoor, J. (1998) Dogs and turnips. Retrieved from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/education/dynamic/session4/sess4_act1.htm
Nye, B. (1993-1998). Bill Nye the Science Guy. Hollywood: Disney-American Broadcasting Company.
Scientific Method [Video file]. (1999-2012). Retrieved from www.brainpop.com
Smith, S., Moe, J., Letts, K. & Paterson, D. (1993). Ancient Coin. Retrieved from http://www.blm.gov/id/st/en/fo/shoshone/wilson_butte_cave/teacher_pages/Archaeology_FUNdamentals/Observation_and_Inference_activity.html
Smith, S., Moe, J., Letts, K. & Paterson, D. (1993). Boy in the water. Retrieved from http://www.blm.gov/id/st/en/fo/shoshone/wilson_butte_cave/teacher_pages/Archaeology_FUNdamentals/Observation_and_Inference_activity.html
Tyler, R. (1949). Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Wyoming Science Content and Performance Standards. (2008). Wyoming Content and Performance Standards. Retrieved from http://edu.wyoming.gov/Programs/standards.aspx

What is a Scientist?
How Does a Scientist Think? What Does a Scientist Look Like?




The Rope Problem

Objective: Use scientific thinking to solve the problem of how to separate two individuals
joined together by two strands of rope.
Problem: You and your partner are attached by two ropes that are crossed over each other.
You must find a way to get apart without untying or breaking the ropes.
Pre-Lab Questions:
1. Were you curious after you read the problem?_______ What was the first thing you thought about after you read the problem?


2. List as many of the steps that you can think of that scientists use to solve problems.


3. a. Observe figure 1 below. What is your predicted answer to the problem? (Describe how you and your partner are going to get apart)


b. What is the scientific term that scientists use for a predicted answer to a problem?

c. Now, put your predicted answer into an if. . .then. . . form.
If (what you are going to do)_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________, then (what will happen)______________________________________________________
Materials: 2 pieces of string (1.5 meters long) each
Functioning Brain
Procedure:
1. Decide which person in the group will be:
a. directing the "un-tangling" and taking notes on how you accomplish the task
b. which two people will be tied together with the rope (persons A and B).

4. Person "A": Take one of the lengths of rope and slip the loop of one side onto your right hand, the other loop onto your left.

5. Person "B": Take your rope and slip one of the loops onto your left hand. Next, pass the free end of your rope between your partner's rope and his/her body. Last, slip the other loop onto your right hand. (see fig. 1) CONGRATULATIONS!! (you should be joined together)
6. You may now attempt to separate yourselves; however, you may not:
a. cut the ropes
b. untie the knots
c. slip the loops off your hands

7. Yes!!! It is physically possible!!!

8. While the 2 people tied together are working on un-tangling themselves, the third person should be helping to direct the "un-tangling" and taking notes on what steps they are taking. The director will be writing step-by-step instructions on how to get un-tangeled that someone else will be following, so he/she need to be precise. The two people tangled will be calling out the steps they are taking to get untangled to the director so that he/she may write the steps down.

9. On the next page write up your solution and all of the steps you took to arrive at it. Be very specific -- Be so specific that you could separate a pair of people in the same predicament just by reading your directions to them. (that means: without pointing, helping, showing, using names, etc. . .) You should use steps -- 1,2,3. . . do not try to write a paragraph.

10. GOOD LUCK!! (use the Force if you have the gift. . .)

Post-Lab Thoughts:
1. Explain how you thought like a scientist in order to solve this problem:___________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Was another group able to repeat the solution based on your directions? _________ In order for solution to be considered "real science" it needs to be repeatable. Would you consider this problem and solution real science?__________ Why or why not?______________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Do you think scientists working as a team to solve a problem is valuable?_______Based on today's activity explain why teamwork might be valuable:______________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

What are you going to do? Did it Work? What are you going to change?


Name___________________________
Bill Nye: Psuedo-Science Date____________ฌฌฌ-__Per___________
In the boxes below write examples of real science and pseudo-science
Real Science Pseudo-Science


In the Venn diagram below compare and contrast real science with pseudo-science. In the left circle you will be writing things that apply just to real science. In the right circle you will be writing things that apply just to pseudo-science. In the center circle you will be writing things that apply to both real science and pseudo-science.

Curiosities & Questions
As we make______________ about the world around us, we get curious about some things. These curiosities prompt us to form __________________.
Hypothesis
We want to figure out the answers to these questions so we make a ___________________ based on our observations. In science we call an educated prediction a ______________________. A ____________________ is a _______________, __________________, and ______________________ prediction that answers the question. Many times hypotheses are written in ______,______ format.
Experiment
________________ test the hypothesis. There are many things to consider and identify when preparing your experiment.
Independent Variable: the part of the experiment you _________ on __________, the ____ part of the hypothesis.
Dependent Variable: the part of the experiment you make ____________ about or take ________________ on, the ______ part of the hypothesis.
Control Trials: The ____________ trials. What you compare the experimental trials to.
Experimental Trials: The trials you have ______________ or done something to, the ones you hope show a _______________ from the control trials.
Constants: Parts of the experiment you keep the __________ so you know for sure that your independent variable caused the change, not something else.
Of course you should always ______________ your entire experiment to make sure your data is ______________.

Organizing Data
Data should always be organized in a _________ and ___________ data table. The ________________________ usually goes across the _______. The ________________________ usually goes down the _________. You should always use a ___________ when drawing a data table.

Analyzing Results
Once you have the data organized into a data table you can look for ____________ in the data. You can analyze these patterns to make __________________ ( a _______________ based on ________________ and _________________. A good way to look for trends is to _________ the data and evaluate the graph.

Theory & Law
If repeated experiments support the ___________ it can become _________________________. For example, the Law of Gravity. Scientific law is accepted until new evidence proves otherwise.

Reporting Results
One of the most important concepts behind the scientific method is that experiments are __________ by others. Most results go through a process called ______________. Other scientists read and evaluate experiment making sure the original researchers followed all steps of the ____________ _________________.


Curiosities & Questions
As we make______________ about the world around us, we get curious about some things. These curiosities prompt us to form __________________.
Hypothesis
We want to figure out the answers to these questions so we make a ___________________ based on our observations. In science we call an educated prediction a ______________________. A ____________________ is a _______________, __________________, and ______________________ prediction that answers the question. Many times hypotheses are written in ______,______ format.
Experiment
________________ test the hypothesis. There are many things to consider and identify when preparing your experiment.
Independent Variable: the part of the experiment you _________ on __________, the ____ part of the hypothesis.
Dependent Variable: the part of the experiment you make ____________ about or take __________ on, the ______ part of the hypothesis.
Control Trials: The ____________ trials. What you compare the experimental trials to.
Experimental Trials: The trials you have ______________ or done something to, the ones you hope show a _______________ from the control trials.
Constants : Parts of the experiment you keep the __________ so you know for sure that your independent variable caused the change, not something else.
Of course you should always ______________ your entire experiment to make sure your data is ______________.

Organizing Data
Data should always be organized in a _________ and ___________ data table. The ________________________ usually goes across the _______. The ________________________ usually goes down the _________. You should always use a ___________ when drawing a data table.

Analyzing Results
Once you have the data organized into a data table you can look for ____________ in the data. You can analyze these patterns to make __________________ ( a _______________ based on ________________ and _________________. A good way to look for trends is to _________ the data and evaluate the graph.

Theory & Law
If repeated experiments support the ___________ it can become _________________________. For example, the Law of Gravity. Scientific law is accepted until new evidence proves otherwise.

Reporting Results
One of the most important concepts behind the scientific method is that experiments are __________ by others. Most results go through a process called ______________. Other scientists read and evaluate the experiment making sure the original researchers followed all steps of the ____________ _________________.

Brain Pop!-Scientific Method
1. What is the first step in scientific problem solving?______________________
2. The next thing we do is make a list of thing we already _______________ about the problem.
3. Then we make some ________________________ about our problem.
4. An __________________________ is a conclusion about our observations.
5. We transfer the inference into a __________________________.
6. A _________________________ is a testable explanation for the things you observe.
7. You then create an _________________________ to test the hypothesis.
8. In an experiment the following things are kept the same: type of pot, soil and sunlight. These are the ________________________ for the experiment. (The things that are kept the same to keep the experiment fair)
9. The ____________________ is the thing in an experiment that changes. There should only be one thing that changes.
10. After conducting the experiment, you record new _________________________
11. After you are done observing and recording your observations (data) you should _______________________ the data.
12. Once you have analyzed the data, you can make a ______________________
13. To be really sure of a conclusion you should __________________ the experiment several times.
14. If the experimental data doesn't support the hypothesis, then the hypothesis needs to be __________________________
15. If lots and lots of experiments do support the hypothesis, that hypothesis can eventually become a ________________________.
16. A _______________ is an explanatory statement that's been repeatedly confirmed through experimental testing.
17. A theory that has been confirmed over and over can become ________________.
18. There is no such thing as scientific ______________ because scientists are always learning new things about the world around us.
19. If you form a hypothesis without any observations then you are really just __________________.


Controlled
Experiment

A way of learning about the natural world.

Science

Using one or more of your senses and sometimes tools to gather information.

Observation

The way that scientists study and make explanations about the natural world.

Scientific
Inquiry

A curiosity about the natural world that comes from your experiences, observations and inferences.


Scientific
Question

The grouping together of objects that are alike in some way.

Classifying

The one variable that is purposely changed. Also known as the independent variable.

Manipulated
Variable


A summary of what you have learned from an experiment.

Conclusion

Observation that deals with numbers or amounts.

Quantitative
Observation

A possible, testable answer to a question.

Hypothesis

Facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through qualitative and quantitative evidence.

Data

Comparing observations and data to reach a conclusion

Evaluating

A representation of a complex objects or process that cannot be studied directly.


Model

The change that you observe in an experiment. Also known as the dependent variable.

Responding
Variable

A well-tested explanation of an observation or hypothesis.

Theory

A statement about what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence.

Prediction

One of the tools that can help you interpret data.

Graph

Observations that are descriptive and cannot be expressed in numbers.

Qualitative
Observation

A statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time for a certain event.

Scientific
Law

The variable that you purposely change in an experiment. Also known as the manipulated variable.

Independent
Variable

An explanation for what is currently happening or has happened based on observations and evidence.

Inference

An experiment that has followed sound scientific principles.

Valid
Experiment

A place where you can collect and record your data in an organized way.

Data
Table

All the variables in an experiment that you keep the same in order for the experiment to be consistent.

Controlled
Variables

A mistake in the design of an experiment that make a particular result more likely.

Experimental
Bias

Sharing of scientific ideas and results through meetings, the Internet and scientific journals

Scientific
Communication

Interpreting data by looking for trends or patterns.

Analysis

The change that you observe in an experiment. Also known as the responding variable.

Dependent
Variable


An experiment in which only variable is manipulated at a time.




Name_______________
Period#______________

* Scientists use the skill of observation to gain knowledge about the natural world.
* Quantitative observations deal with _________________________.
* Qualitative observations deal with __________________________.

Materials: marbles, buttons, rulers, magnifying lenses

Procedure: Observe objects both quantitatively and qualitatively.

Data:
Quantitative Qualitative
Observations (numbers) Observations (descriptions)

1.______________________________ 1.___________________________________

2.______________________________ 2.___________________________________

3.______________________________ 3.___________________________________

4.______________________________ 4.___________________________________

5.______________________________ 5.___________________________________

Post-Lab Evaluation
1. Was it easier to make quantitative or qualitative observations?______________________

Why? _____________________________________________________________________

2. Explain why the skill of observation is useful to scientists? _________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

3. Why is it important to be detailed and use complete sentences when recording your observations?_______________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

4. Write (2) examples of quantitative and (2) examples of qualitative observations you can make about the classroom:

Quantitative Qualitative
Observations (numbers) Observations (descriptions)

1.______________________________ 1.___________________________________

2.______________________________ 2.___________________________________
Three Hole-Bottle Mystery!
(aka: Making Predictions and Writing Hypotheses
Writing Hypotheses:
In this activity you will be practicing hypothesis writing. This form of predicting follows some rules. Hypotheses must be written in ______..._______ format. For example, If I give my plant 5 grams of fertilizer per week, then it will grow faster than without fertilizer. Hypotheses must also be ________________, _____________________ and ____________.
Hypotheses can either be proven correct or false through ____________________.
The Activity:
1. Sketch the bottle and label the approximate location of the holes and the tape. Make any other observations about the bottle now.

2. Write a hypothesis about what will happen when the tape is pulled from the first hole. Use the if. . .then format.
If the tape is pulled from the first hole, then_____________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
Predict and sketch how the bottle will look and the path you think the water will take.


3. Now the fun part. Pull the tape down from the FIRST HOLE ONLY. Observe what happens for a few seconds then replace the tape over the first hole. Record your observations and sketch how the bottle looked and the path that the water took.


Did your observations show your hypothesis to be correct or false?__________________.
4. Write a hypothesis about what will happen when the tape is pulled from the first and second holes. Use the if. . .then format.
If the tape is pulled from the first and second holes, then__________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
Predict and sketch how the bottle will look and the path you think the water will take.

5. Pull the tape down from the FIRST AND SECOND HOLES ONLY. Observe what happens for a few seconds then replace the tape over the first hole. Record your observations and sketch how the bottle looked and the path that the water took.


Did your observations show your hypothesis to be correct or false?__________________.

6. Write a hypothesis about what will happen when the tape is pulled from the first and second and third holes. Use the if. . .then format.
If ______________________________________________________, then____________
_________________________________________________________________________
Predict and sketch how the bottle will look and the path you think the water will take.



7. Pull the tape down from ALL 3 HOLES. Observe what happens for a few seconds then replace the tape over the first hole. Record your observations and sketch how the bottle looked and the path that the water took.


Did your observations show your hypothesis to be correct or false?__________________.
Data
Create a data table in which to record your observations. There is no "right" way to do this, just make sure that it is easy to read includes all of your observations. Always use a ruler to draw your data table!


Part II
Turn the bottle on the horizontal, with the holes facing down and the tape in place.
What will happen when the holes are uncovered in sequence? Write the hypotheses and sketches below.
1. 1st Hole uncovered
If_______________________________________________________________________
Then____________________________________________________________________
Sketch:


2. 2nd Hole uncovered
If_______________________________________________________________________
Then____________________________________________________________________
Sketch


3. 3rd Hole uncovered
If_______________________________________________________________________
Then____________________________________________________________________
Sketch:
Data
Create a data table in which to record your observations. Always use a ruler to draw your data table!

Analyze the Data
What surprised you about the results?__________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
Did your hypotheses become increasingly more specific?_______
Is this data quantitative or qualitative?_____________


The Steps of Scientific Inquiry
MAKE A PLAN: What is your independent or manipulated variable?
Independent/Manipulated Variable:
The part of the experiment you change on purpose, what you will do, test or manipulate in
the experiment. This will be the If part of your hypothesis and the If part of your question!
MAKE A PLAN: What is your dependent or responding variable?
Dependent/Responding Variable:
The part of the experiment you observe or measure, this is what you predict will happen as a result of your experiment. This will be the then part of your hypothesis and the Will part of your question!
QUESTION:
Use a "Will . . . if" question format. The question should be testable, specific, and detailed. The will part is your prediction (dependent/responding variable). The if part is what you the scientist are doing (independent/manipulating variable).
ABSTRACT:
Background Knowledge: In this section you talk about what you already know about the question. It is a good place to define any science terms.
What will I do?
Write the numbered steps of the procedure. Ex. 1). . ...
2). . ...
What I expect to happen and why?
Explain your prediction or what you expect to happen in the experiment. Explain your reasoning! WHY are you making the prediction you are making!
HYPOTHESIS:
An "IF" . . ."THEN" statement that is specific, testable, and measurable and makes a prediction. The IF part talks about what you are doing in the experiment (independent/manipulating variable) and the THEN part talks about your prediction (dependent/ responding variable).
CONSTANTS:
These are the things you have to keep the same for all trials to keep your experiment fair.

DATA:
Data is usually organized into a table to keep it neat, organized, and easy to understand. Usually you perform 3 or more trials and find an average. Sometimes we collect class data to gather more data. ALWAYS LABEL your data.
Qualitative Data: words/descriptions
Quantitative Data: numbers/ measurements
CONCLUSION:
Accept or Reject Hypothesis:
Analyze your data.
Overall, was your hypothesis supported by your results? If it was proven true by your data, you need to accept it. If your data does not support your hypothesis you need to reject it!
Restate Hypothesis:
Re-write your entire hypothesis word for word.
Evidence:
Prove that you made the right choice when you accepted or rejected your hypothesis by backing up your decision with data! If you have averages of data provide all the numbers! Tell all your proof for rejecting or accepting your hypothesis.
Difference? Significant?
Defend your choice by finding the difference between the variables tested and indicate whether or not the difference in results seems SIGNIFICANT to you!

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY INTRODUCTION
Definition/Description Example: Does sugar or salt dissolve faster?
Independent/ Manipulated Variable: The part of the experiment you change on _____________, what you think the ________ is, the _____ part of your hypothesis Independent/ Manipulated Variable:

Dependent/ Responding Variable: The part of the experiment you ___________ or _________ during the experiment, what you predict the _______ is, the _____ part of the hypothesis Dependent/Responding Variable:

Question:
An "_____ - _______" question that is ____________, ___________, and ___________. The "will" part makes a prediction about how the dependent variable will be affected. "If" part talks about what you will do to your independent variable. Question:
Will________________________ ___________________________
if _______________________ __________________________?
Abstract:
Background Knowledge: In this section you talk about what you already _________ that relates to the ___________. It is a good place to__________ the science terms you are using.
What I will do:
In this section you summarize the experiment in a few brief, concise statements.
What I expect to happen and why: Explain what you expect the dependent variable will do when you change the independent variable and ____________ __________ using good science!!! Abstract:
Background Knowledge:

What I will do:


What I expect to happen and WHY:


Hypothesis:
An "_____-________" statement that is specific, testable, and measurable and makes a prediction. The ___ part talks about what you will do to your independent variable and the ______ part makes a prediction about how that will affect your dependent variable. Hypothesis:
If ________________________ __________________________ then ______________________ __________________________
Constants:
These are the things you have to keep the ______________ for all trials to keep your experiment _____________________ Constants:

Data:
Data is usually organized into a __________ to keep it neat, organized and easy to _______________. Usually you perform 3 trials, and find the ___________ for each, but if you have time, more trials are always __________. The more trials you perform, the more ____________ your data is. Class data is often collected.
ALWAYS LABEL YOUR DATA!!!

Qualitative Data: _________________
Quantitative Data: ___________________ Data:
Independent Variable:

Dependent Variable:


Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average
Sugar:


Salt:


Conclusion:
Accept or Reject Hypothesis:
Analyze your data.
Overall, was your hypothesis supported by your results?
If it was proven true by your results, you need to ______________ it.
If your results do not all support your hypothesis, you need to _____________ it.

Restate Hypothesis: Re-write your entire hypothesis, __________ for ___________

Evidence:______________ that you made the right choice when you accepted or rejected your hypothesis by backing up your decision with ____________. If you have averages of data provide the numbers! This is a great moment to reveal all your PROOF for rejecting or accepting the hypothesis!

Difference? Significant?
______________ your choice by finding the difference between the average results for your variable and indicating whether or not the difference in results seems _________________ to you. Conclusion:
Accept or Reject Hypothesis:
Based on the results of my experiment I _________ my hypothesis that If _____________ ___________________________ ___________________________
___________________________ My evidence to support this is that the time for salt to dissolve was ________, and the time for sugar to dissolve was ___________. The difference between the time for sugar and salt to dissolve was ___________ which _________ seem significant to me.


SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY INTRODUCTION
Definition/Description Example: Does sugar or salt dissolve faster? The scientific question
Independent/ Manipulated Variable: The part of the experiment you change on _____________, what you think the ________ is, the _____ part of your hypothesis Independent/ Manipulated Variable:


Dependent/ Responding Variable: The part of the experiment you ___________ or _________ during the experiment, what you predict the _______ is, the _____ part of the hypothesis Dependent/Responding Variable:


Question:
An "_____ - _______" question that is ____________, ___________, and ___________. The "will" part makes a prediction about how the dependent variable will be affected. "If" part talks about what you will do to your independent variable. Question:
Will________________________ ___________________________
if _______________________ __________________________?
Abstract:
Background Knowledge: In this section you talk about what you already _________ that relates to the ___________. It is a good place to__________ the science terms you are using.
What I will do:
In this section you summarize the experiment in a few brief, concise statements.
What I expect to happen and why: Explain what you expect the dependent variable will do when you change the independent variable and ____________ __________ using good science!!! Abstract:
Background Knowledge:

What I will do:


What I expect to happen and WHY:


Hypothesis:
An "_____-________" statement that is specific, testable, and measurable and makes a prediction. The ___ part talks about what you will do to your independent variable and the ______ part makes a prediction about how that will affect your dependent variable. Hypothesis:
If ________________________ __________________________ then ______________________ __________________________
Constants:
These are the things you have to keep the ______________ for all trials to keep your experiment _____________________ Constants:


Data:
Data is usually organized into a __________ to keep it neat, organized and easy to _______________. Usually you perform 3 trials, and find the ___________ for each, but if you have time, more trials are always __________. The more trials you perform, the more ____________ your data is. Class data is often collected.
ALWAYS LABEL YOUR DATA!!!

Qualitative Data: _________________
Quantitative Data: ___________________
Data:
Independent Variable:

Dependent Variable:


Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average
Sugar:


Salt:


Conclusion:
Accept or Reject Hypothesis:
Analyze your data.
Overall, was your hypothesis supported by your results?
If it was proven true by your results, you need to ___accept___________ it.
If your results do not all support your hypothesis, you need to _____reject________ it.

Restate Hypothesis: Re-write your entire hypothesis, ____word____ for ____word____

Evidence:_____Defend_________ that you made the right choice when you accepted or rejected your hypothesis by backing up your decision with __data__________. If you have averages of data provide the numbers! This is a great moment to reveal all your EVIDENCE for rejecting or accepting the hypothesis!

Difference? Significant?
____Support__________ your choice by finding the difference between the average results for your variable and indicating whether or not the difference in results seems ___significant______ to you. Conclusion:
Accept or Reject Hypothesis:
Based on the results of my experiment I _accept or reject____ my hypothesis that If_____________ ___________________________ ___________________________
___________________________ My evidence to support this is that the time for salt to dissolve was __( ) sec_, and the time for sugar to dissolve was (__) sec______. The difference between the time for sugar and salt to dissolve was _______sec____ which __does or does not_______ seem significant to me.

Scientific Method in Action!

The Strange Case of BeriBeri

In 1887 a strange nerve disease attacked the people in the Dutch East Indies. The disease was Beriberi. Symptoms of the disease included weakness and loss of appetite, victims often died of heart failure. Scientists thought the disease might be caused by bacteria. They injected chickens with bacteria from the blood of patients with Beriberi. The injected chickens became sick. However, so did a group of chickens that were not injected with bacteria.
One of the scientists, Dr. Eijkman, noticed something. Before the experiment, all the chickens had eaten whole-grain rice, but during the experiment, the chickens were fed polished rice. Dr. Eijkman researched this interesting case, and he found that polished rice lacked thiamine, a vitamin necessary for good health.

1. State the Problem:


2. What was the hypothesis?


3. How was the hypothesis tested?


4. Should the hypothesis be supported or rejected based on the experiment?


5. What should be the new hypothesis?

How Penicillin Was Discovered

In 1928, Sir Alexander Fleming was studying Staphylococcus bacteria growing in culture dishes. He noticed that a mold called Penicillium was also growing in some of the dishes. A clear area existed around the mold because all the bacteria that had grown in this area had died. In the culture dishes without the mold, no clear areas were present.
Fleming hypothesized that the mold must be producing a chemical that killed the bacteria. He decided to isolate this substance and test it to see if it would kill bacteria. Fleming transferred the mold to a nutrient broth solution. This solution contained all the materials the mold needed to grow. After the mold grew, he removed it from the nutrient broth. Fleming then added the nutrient broth in which the mold had grown to a culture of bacteria. He observed that the bacteria died.

6. Identify the problem:

7. What was Fleming's hypothesis?

8. How was the hypothesis tested?


9. Should the hypothesis be supported or rejected based on the experiment?


10. This experiment led to the development of what major medical advancement?

Scientific Inquiry & Name______________________________
Scientific Skills Quiz __________/ 30 _______ Date___________________Per_________

Circle the independent variable and underline the dependent variable in questions 1-4.
1. If I wash my hands with soap, then I won't get sick.
2. My watermelon will be bigger if I fertilize them once a week.
3. I want to see if wearing sunscreen at the track meet will keep me from getting sunburned.
4. I wonder if I can run faster if I wear my track cleats during my race?
5. The independent variable is usually the ______ statement in a hypothesis.
6. The dependent variable is usually the ________statement in a hypothesis.
7. Another name for the independent variable is the _________________________ variable.
8. Another name for the dependent variable is the __________________________variable.
9. The other parts of the experiment that you want to keep the same to keep the experiment fair are called the ____________________________ variables.
10. Quantitative data is data that is ( numerical, descriptive)
11.Qualitative data is data that is ( numerical, descriptive)
12.Label the following as qualitative (QL) or quantitative (QT) data
a. 25 grams________ b. straight hair_________ c. 5.0 meters_________
b. 2/3 of students______ c. straightest flight__________ d. 7.2 seconds________
Use your knowledge of scientific inquiry to answer the following questions.
Trent and Suzie wanted to clean their Mom and Dad's cars because they were REALLY dirty! Trent thought that vinegar and warm water would be the best cleaner, while Suzie thought that soap and warm water would work best. Since both cars were of equal dirtiness to begin with the kids had a contest to see which car would be the shiniest once cleaned.
1) Write a scientific question: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2) Write a testable hypothesis:
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3) What is the independent / manipulated variable?_______________________________________
4) What is the dependent / responding variable?_________________________________________
5) What are the constants? (list 3 )
1. ____________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________
Summative Assessment:
Skills Scientists Use & Scientific Inquiry

Please read the following scientific scenario:
Sally wants to grow the biggest pumpkin for the Jack-O-Lantern contest. Sally thinks using "Pumpkin-Gro" fertilizer will make her pumpkins bigger. Sally decided to plant 10 pumpkin plants. She watered half of them (5 plants) with plain water. She watered the other half (5 plants) with water mixed with "Pumpkin-Gro" fertilizer. After growing the pumpkins for 4 months, Sally measured the diameter of each pumpkin. The results are shown in the data table.

Please be specific and detailed when answering the following questions:
1. What is Sally's hypothesis? (Please use If. . .then. . .format)______________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. What is the control group?___________________________________________

3. What is the independent variable?______________________________________

4. What is the dependent variable?________________________________________

5. What are 3 variables that Sally needs to control?
1._________________________________________________________________
2._________________________________________________________________
3._________________________________________________________________
6. Based on the data, should Sally accept or reject her hypothesis? ( Accept / Reject )

7. What should Sally's conclusion be?____________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
8. Is Sally's data quantitative or qualitative?__________________________________

Scientific Inquiry Lab

Which shape of paper falls fastest: An unfolded sheet of paper, a paper folded in fourths, or a sheet of crumpled paper?

MAKE YOUR PLAN:
What is your independent or manipulated variable?

________________________________________________________

What is your dependent or responding variable?

________________________________________________________

Question (Using correct form):
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Hypothesis (Using correct form):
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What are the constants (at least 3!)
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Data:
Place your data in table below:
Dependent Variable:


Independent
Variable:


Trial 1
Trial 2
Trial 3
Trial 4
Average





Calculations: Show work below:
Averages: To find an average you add the trials together and then divide the sum of the trials by the number of trials you added together. In this case,add trials 1 - 4 together and divide by 4.
Average for ___________ paper:
_______ + _______ + _______ + _______ = ______๗ 4 =

Average for ___________ paper:
_______ + _______ + _______ + _______ = ______๗ 4 =

Average for ___________ paper:
_______ + _______ + _______ + _______ = ______๗ 4 =
Find your largest difference:
___________ paper fell in the slowest average time which was ______s.
___________ paper fell in the fastest average time which was ______s.
The difference between these two number (use subtraction) is =______s
Is this Qualitative or Quantitative Data and Why?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Conclusion:
Based on the data from my experiment, I reject or accept the hypothesis that (Restate your hypothesis WORD FOR WORD)________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
The evidence to support this is that the average time for an unfolded piece of paper was __________ s, for a sheet folded in fourths was _______s, and a crumpled sheet of paper was _______s. The difference between the _____________ piece of paper and _____________ piece of paper was __________s. This difference does or does not seem significant to me. Therefore, I conclude that ________________________ paper is the shape of paper which does significantly or does not significantly fall the fastest.